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Hospital wastewater treatment technology guide

Release time: 2017-08-14 Views: 949

Hospital wastewater treatment technology guide

1 Chapter 1   total   then

        编制目的 1.1 Purpose of preparation

In order to implement the Law of the People's Republic of China on Water Pollution Prevention and Control and the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases, prevent the hospital from discharging sewage to the environment, standardize the construction and operation management of hospital sewage treatment facilities, and promote the discharge of hospital sewage treatment standards, The state has promoted the construction of hospital sewage treatment facilities and the implementation of the forthcoming "Water Pollutant Discharge Standards for Medical Institutions", and compiled this technical guide.

The guidelines provide classified guidance based on the nature, scale, and destination of wastewater discharge in hospitals, and taking into account local conditions. Provide technical support for the construction of sewage treatment facilities in hospitals for reference by relevant departments of health, environmental protection and construction.

        适用范围 1.2 Application

   1.2.1 This guide is applicable to general hospitals, traditional Chinese medicine hospitals, integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine hospitals, ethnic hospitals and specialized hospitals (infectious disease hospitals (including tuberculosis hospitals), cardiovascular hospitals, tumor hospitals, dental hospitals, obstetrics and gynecology hospitals, and psychiatric hospitals, etc. ) Treatment of various types of hospital sewage. Sewage treatment works in other medical institutions such as nursing homes, rehabilitation hospitals, and veterinary hospitals can be implemented by reference.

   1.2.2 The contents of this guide include hospital sewage collection, process selection, completion acceptance, operation and management of treatment facilities, occupational health, and labor hygiene.

   1.2.3 This guideline applies to the design, construction and management of hospital sewage treatment facilities.

        编制依据 1.3 Preparation basis

Law of the People's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases (Presidential Decree of the People's Republic of China No. 15)

1996 5 15 第八届全国人大会常务委员会第十九次修正) "Water Pollution Control Law of the People's Republic of China" (according to the nineteenth amendment of the Standing Committee of the Eighth National People's Congress on May 15 , 1996 )

(1989 7 12 国务院批准 1989 7 12 国家环境保护局令第 1 号发布 ) Implementation Rules of the Water Pollution Control Law of the People's Republic of China ( Approved by the State Council on July 12 , 1989 , and issued by the State Environmental Protection Administration Order No. 1 on July 12 , 1989 )

Regulations on Environmental Protection Management of Construction Projects   State Council Decree   253 No. 253

JGJ49-88 "General Hospital Building Design Code" JGJ49-88

GBJ 15-88(1997 年版 ) Design Code for Water Supply and Drainage in Buildings GBJ 15-88 (1997 edition )

CECS07:88 "Code for Design of Hospital Sewage Treatment" CECS07: 88

   GB3838-2002    Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water

   GB8978-1996    Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard

"Water Pollutant Discharge Standards for Hospital Institutions" under development

When the above standards and documents are revised, use the latest version.

        术语和定义 1.4 Terms and definitions

   1.4.1 Hospital Nature Classification

In this guide, various types of hospitals are classified into general hospitals and infectious disease hospitals according to their nature, which is different from the way the health system divides hospitals and medical institutions. The infectious disease hospitals referred to in the guidelines refer to infectious disease specialist hospitals and general hospitals with infectious wards. The general hospitals referred to in the guidelines are general hospitals without infectious wards and specialized hospitals for various non-communicable diseases.

   1.4.2 Hospital sewage

Refers to sewage produced by hospitals that contains pathogens, heavy metals, disinfectants, organic solvents, acids, alkalis, and radioactive substances.

   1.4.3 sludge

Refers to sludge and septic tank sludge generated during hospital sewage treatment.

   1.4.4 Exhaust gas

Refers to the waste gas generated during the hospital sewage treatment process.

        医院污水的来源及危害 1.5 Sources and hazards of hospital sewage

   1.5.1 X 光照像洗印、动物房、同位素治疗诊断、手术室等排水;医院行政管理和医务人员排放的生活污水,食堂、单身宿舍、家属宿舍排水。 The functions, facilities, and personnel composition of each department of the hospital are different. The main departments and facilities that produce sewage are: clinics, laboratories, wards, laundry rooms, X-ray image printing, animal rooms, isotope treatment and diagnosis, and drainage of operating rooms; Domestic sewage discharged by hospital administration and medical staff, canteen, single dormitory, and family dormitory drainage. The composition and quantity of sewage produced by different departments and departments are different, such as heavy metal wastewater, oily wastewater, printing wastewater, radioactive wastewater, etc. And the sewage produced by different types of hospitals is also very different. Hospital sewage is more complicated than general domestic sewage.

The source and composition of hospital sewage are complex, containing pathogenic microorganisms, toxic and harmful physical and chemical pollutants, and radioactive pollution. It has the characteristics of space pollution, acute infection and latent infection. Without effective treatment, it will become an important way to spread the disease. And severely pollute the environment.

   1.5.2 Hospital sewage is contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms such as feces, infectious bacteria and viruses, and is contagious, which can cause disease or cause harm.

   1.5.3 BOD COD 和动植物油等有毒、有害物质。 Hospital sewage contains toxic and harmful substances such as acids, alkalis, suspended solids, BOD , COD and animal and vegetable oils.

   1.5.4 Sewage containing heavy metals, disinfectants, organic solvents, etc. is generated in the processes of dental treatment, printing and laboratory tests, and some of them are carcinogenic, teratogenic or mutagenic, which endanger human health and have a long-term impact on the environment.

   1.5.5 Isotopic treatment and diagnosis produce radioactive sewage. a- β- γ- 放射性,在人体内积累而危害人体健康。 Radioisotopes produce a- , β-, and γ- radioactivity during the decay process, which accumulate in the human body and endanger human health.

        医院污水处理原则 1.6 Hospital sewage treatment principles

   1.6.1 Whole process control principle. Control the whole process of hospital sewage production, treatment and discharge.

   1.6.2 Reduction principle. The hospital's internal health and safety management system is strictly controlled. Strict control and separation are performed at the source of sewage and sewage. The domestic sewage in the hospital is collected separately from the ward sewage, that is, the source is controlled and the sewage is separated.

It is strictly forbidden to dispose of sewage and dirt in hospitals into the sewers.

   1.6.3 Handle in Place Principle. In order to prevent pollution and hazards in the process of hospital sewage transportation, it must be disposed of in the hospital.

   1.6.4 Classification guidelines. Classify and guide hospital wastewater treatment based on the nature, scale, destination of wastewater discharge, and regional differences.

   1.6.5 The principle of combining compliance with risk control. Comprehensively consider the basic requirements for wastewater discharge in general hospitals and infectious disease hospitals, and strengthen awareness of risk control, and improve the ability to respond to emergencies in terms of process technology, engineering construction and supervision and management.

   1.6.6 Ecological security principles. Effectively remove toxic and harmful substances in sewage, reduce the production of disinfection by-products during the treatment process, and control excessive residual chlorine in the effluent to protect the ecological environment.

   2 Chapter 2 Hospital sewage water quality, water quantity and discharge standards

医院污水的收集 2.1 Collection of hospital sewage

   2.1.1   Sewage in hospital ward and non-ward ward shall be diverted. Strict hospital internal health and safety management system shall be strictly controlled. Sewage and sewage in the hospital shall be strictly controlled and separated. Sewage generated in the hospital shall not be randomly disposed into the sewage system. Newly constructed, reconstructed and expanded hospitals should be designed to separate sewage that may be contaminated with infectious disease pathogens from other sewage. Existing hospitals should collect sewage contaminated with infectious disease pathogens from other sewage as much as possible.

   2.1.2   Hospitals for infectious diseases (including general hospitals with infectious wards) shall be provided with special septic tanks. Infectious pollutants contaminated by pathogens of infectious diseases, such as feces containing feces, must be strictly disinfected in accordance with China's relevant regulations on health and epidemic prevention. The excreta such as sterilized feces should be separately treated or discharged into a special septic tank, and the supernatant liquid enters the hospital sewage treatment system.

Hospitals without septic tanks should treat disinfected excreta as medical waste.

   2.1.3   Various special drainages of the hospital, such as heavy metal wastewater, oily wastewater, and printing wastewater, should be collected separately and discharged into the hospital wastewater treatment system after taking different pretreatment measures.

   2.1.4   Radioactive waste water from isotope treatment and diagnosis must be collected and treated separately.

        医院污水排放量 2.2 Hospital sewage discharge

   2.2.1 Hospital sewage discharge

   、新建医院 1. New hospital

[2003]4 号进行取值设计,做到清污分流,节约用水。 The sewage discharge of newly built hospitals should be designed in accordance with Jianzhi [2003] No. 4 of the "Technical Measures for the Design of Civil Construction Engineering" to achieve cleanup and diversion and save water.

   、现有医院 2. Existing hospitals

   污水排放量根据实测数据确定 1) Sewage discharge is determined based on measured data

   无实测数据时可参考下列数据计算 2) When there is no measured data, you can refer to the following data for calculation

   设备齐全的大型医院或 500 床以上医院:平均日污水量为 400 600L/ .d kd 2.0 2.2 kd 为污水日变化系数。 (1) Large-scale hospitals or hospitals with more than 500 beds: the average daily sewage volume is 400 600L / bed.d , kd = 2.0 2.2 , kd is the daily variation coefficient of sewage

   一般设备的中型医院或 100 499 床医院:平均污水量为 300 400L/ .d kd 2.2 2.5 kd 为污水日变化系数。 (2) Medium-sized hospitals with general equipment or hospitals with 100 to 499 beds: The average sewage volume is 300 to 400 L / bed. D , kd = 2.2 to 2.5 , and kd is the daily variation coefficient of sewage.

   小型医院 (100 床以下 ) :平均污水量为 250 300L/ .d kd 2.5 kd 为污水日变化系数。 (3) Small hospitals (under 100 beds ) : The average sewage volume is 250 to 300L / bed. D , kd = 2.5 , and kd is the daily variation coefficient of sewage.

   2.2.2 Classification of hospital sewage treatment facilities by scale

100 150 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1000 以上等。 The scale of hospital sewage treatment facilities is divided into 100 , 150 , 200 , 300 , 400 , 500 , 600 , 700 , 800 , 900 , 1000, and 1,000 by the number of beds .

        医院污水水质 2.3 Hospital sewage water quality

   2.3.1 New hospital

The pollutant discharge amount of each bed can be selected according to the following values:

   40-60g/ .d CODcr 100 150g/ .d ,悬浮物: 50 100g/ .d BOD 5 : 40-60g / bed.d , CODcr : 100-150g / bed.d , suspended matter : 50-100g / bed.d ;

2.2.1 中水量计算新建医院的设计水质。 Calculate the design water quality of the new hospital based on the discharge of pollutants from each bed and the amount of water in 2.2.1 .

   2.3.2 Existing hospital

   污水水质应以实测数据为准; 1) Sewage water quality shall be based on actual measured data;

   在无实测资料时可参考表 2-2 2) When there is no measured data, refer to Table 2-2 .

   2-2 Table 2-2    Hospital sewage water quality

 

CODcr

mg / L

5 BOD 5

mg / L

SS

mg / L

Ammonia nitrogen

mg / L

Fecal E.coli

/L Pcs / L

Sewage concentration range

300 150 300

150 80 150

120 40 120

50 10 50

× 10 6 ~3.0 × 10 8 1.0 × 10 6 ~ 3.0 × 10 8

average value

250

100

80

30

× 10 8 1.6 × 10 8

   

医院污水排放标准 2.4 Hospital sewage discharge standards

   2.4.1 Existing standards

GB8978-1996 ),将医院污水按其受纳水体不同的使用功能等规定了相应的粪大肠杆菌群数和余氯标准,对 COD SS 等理化指标无特别要求,只需达到要求相对较低的其他排污单位标准,且只给出余氯下限而无上限。 The "Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard" ( GB8978-1996 ) currently implemented stipulates the corresponding number of fecal coliforms and residual chlorine in hospital sewage according to the different functions of the receiving water body , and has no physical and chemical indicators such as COD and SS . For special requirements, it is only necessary to meet the standards of other sewage units with relatively low requirements, and only the lower limit of residual chlorine is given without an upper limit.

(1) 悬浮物浓度高,影响消毒效果; (2) 水质波动大,消毒剂投加量难以控制; (3) 消毒副产物产生量大,影响生态环境的安全; (4 )余氯标准无上限,过多余氯危害生态安全等问题。 According to the current standards, the existing hospital wastewater treatment process is low-level, mainly due to (1) high suspended solids concentration, which affects the disinfection effect; (2) large fluctuations in water quality, and it is difficult to control the amount of disinfectant added; (3) the amount of disinfection by-products It will affect the safety of the ecological environment; (4 ) There is no upper limit for the residual chlorine standard, and excessive excess chlorine will harm ecological safety and other issues.

   2.4.2 new standard

In order to strengthen the control of hospital sewage and sewage and implement a new environmental standard system, the state has organized relevant departments and personnel to compile the Water Pollutant Discharge Standards for Medical Institutions.

   、新标准对医院产生的污水、废气和污泥进行了全面控制,在强调对含病原体污水的消毒效果的同时,兼顾生态环境安全。 1. The new standard comprehensively controls the sewage, waste gas and sludge produced by the hospital. While emphasizing the disinfection effect of pathogen-containing sewage, it also takes into account the safety of the ecological environment.

   、在生物指标上,新标准对排入下水道与排入水体的医院污水提出不同要求。 2. In terms of biological indicators, the new standard puts forward different requirements for sewage discharged into the sewer and hospital sewage. The new standard strictly distinguishes the nature of hospitals. At the same time, it divides into two levels according to the fate of sewage, and proposes strict control indicators at all levels based on the original standards.

   、新标准考虑了消毒效果和生态安全性问题,针对不同性质医院及污水去向对消毒时间和余氯量均作了明确规定,严格了余氯标准的上限。 3. The new standard takes into account the effects of disinfection and ecological safety. According to the different nature of hospitals and sewage, the disinfection time and residual chlorine are clearly specified, and the upper limit of the residual chlorine standard is strict.

   、在理化指标方面,对排入地表水体的医院污水和传染病医院污水的 COD BOD5 SS 、动植物油、石油类、阴离子表面活性剂等指标都在原有标准基础上进行了严格的控制,以增强污水处理系统的抗风险性。 4. In terms of physical and chemical indicators, the COD , BOD5 , SS , animal and vegetable oils, petroleum, anionic surfactants and other indicators of hospital sewage discharged into surface water bodies and hospital sewage from infectious diseases are strictly controlled based on the original standards. To enhance the risk resistance of sewage treatment systems. Considering that ammonia nitrogen also consumes disinfectants, strict requirements are also imposed on ammonia nitrogen.

   3 Chapter 3 Hospital wastewater treatment process

工艺选择原则 3.1 Process selection principles

Process selection based on the size, nature of the hospital, and whereabouts of treated wastewater discharge. 1.4.1 中医院分类,分为传染病医院和综合医院。 According to the classification of 1.4.1 Chinese medicine hospitals, they are divided into infectious disease hospitals and general hospitals. The discharge destination of hospital sewage is divided into two types: discharge into natural water bodies and discharge into municipal sewage treatment plants through municipal sewers.

The process used in hospital sewage treatment must ensure that the treated effluent meets the standards. The three main processes used are: primary treatment to enhance the treatment effect, secondary treatment and simple biochemical treatment.

The process selection principle is:

   3.1.1 Infectious disease hospitals must use secondary treatment and require pre-sterilization.

   3.1.2 County and above hospitals that treat effluent discharged into natural water bodies must use secondary treatment.

   3.1.3 ( 下游设有二级污水处理厂 ) 的综合医院推荐采用二级处理,对采用一级处理工艺的必须加强处理效果。 General hospitals that treat effluent discharged into urban sewers ( secondary sewage treatment plants are located downstream ) recommend the use of secondary treatment. The treatment effect must be enhanced for those who use the primary treatment process.

   3.1.4 For small general hospitals in economically underdeveloped areas, simple biochemical treatment can be adopted as a transition treatment measure when conditions are not met, and then secondary treatment or primary treatment with enhanced treatment effect can be gradually realized.

3-1 不同处理工艺的应用情况(略) Figure 3-1 Application of different treatment processes (omitted)

加强处理效果的一级处理工艺 3.2 Primary treatment process to enhance treatment effect

SS 的去除率,减少消毒剂用量。 For general hospitals where the treated effluent finally enters the secondary treatment urban sewage treatment plant, its treatment effect should be strengthened, the removal rate of SS increased , and the amount of disinfectant reduced. Strengthening the primary treatment effect should be achieved in two ways: transforming the existing primary treatment process to enhance the removal effect and adopting the primary intensification treatment technology.

   3.2.1 Process flow

   、对现有一级处理工艺进行加强处理效果的改造 1. Transform the existing primary treatment process to enhance the treatment effect

The reconstruction should make full use of the existing treatment facilities according to the actual situation, and reconstruct the structure or operation mode of the septic tanks and contact tanks that are more commonly used in existing hospitals. If necessary, add some facilities to maximize the treatment effect. To meet the discharge standards of hospital sewage treatment.

   、一级强化处理 2. First-level enhanced treatment

( 不带传染病房 ) 污水处理可采用 预处理 一级强化处理 消毒 的工艺。 For the general hospital ( without infectious ward ) sewage treatment can be used " pretreatment first-level enhanced treatment disinfection " process. ( 过滤 ) 去除携带病毒、病菌的颗粒物,提高消毒效果并降低消毒剂的用量,从而避免消毒剂用量过大对环境产生的不良影响。 Through coagulation sedimentation ( filtration ) to remove particles that carry viruses and germs, improve the disinfection effect and reduce the amount of disinfectant, so as to avoid the adverse impact of excessive amount of disinfectant on the environment.

3-2 一级强化处理工艺流程(略) Figure 3-2 Process flow of first-level enhancement treatment (omitted)

Hospital sewage enters the adjustment tank through the septic tank. An automatic grille is set in the front of the adjustment tank, and a lifting pump is set in the adjustment tank. After being lifted, the sewage enters the coagulation and sedimentation tank for coagulation and sedimentation. The effluent from the sedimentation tank enters the contact tank for disinfection.

Wastes from sewage treatment stations such as control tanks, coagulation sedimentation tanks, contact tanks, and sludge, etc. are collected for centralized disinfection and transport. Sterilization can be done by pasteurization or adding lime.

   3.2.2 Process characteristics

The first-level intensive treatment that enhances the treatment effect can improve the treatment effect, remove particles that carry viruses and germs, improve the effectiveness of subsequent deepening disinfection, and reduce the amount of disinfectant. Among them, the modification of the existing primary treatment process can make full use of existing facilities and reduce investment costs.

   3.2.3 Scope of application

The enhanced primary treatment for enhanced treatment effect is suitable for general hospitals that treat effluent and eventually enter secondary treatment urban sewage treatment plants.

        二级处理工艺 3.3 Secondary treatment process

   3.3.1 Process description

调节池 生物氧化 接触消毒 The secondary treatment process flow is " regulating tank biological oxidation contact disinfection " . Hospital sewage enters the conditioning tank through the septic tank. An automatic grille is set at the front of the adjustment tank. A lifting pump is set in the regulating tank. After the sewage is lifted, it enters the aerobic tank for biological treatment. The effluent from the aerobic tank enters the contact tank for disinfection, and the effluent reaches the standard and is discharged.

Wastes from sewage treatment stations such as control tanks, biochemical treatment tanks, contact tanks, and sludge, etc. are centrally disinfected and transported for incineration. Sterilization can be done by pasteurization or adding lime.

3-3 二级处理工艺流程 ( 非传染病和传染病污水 ) (略) Figure 3-3 Secondary treatment process ( non-infectious disease and infectious disease sewage ) (omitted)

Sewage and feces from infectious disease hospitals are collected separately. Domestic sewage directly enters the pre-sterilization tank for disinfection and then enters the conditioning tank. Patient's feces should be independently disinfected first, then enter the septic tank through the sewer or be treated separately (as shown by the dotted line). Each structure must be operated in a closed environment. Ventilation is performed through a uniform ventilation system. Exhaust gas is discharged after disinfection. Ultraviolet disinfection systems can be used for disinfection.

   3.3.2 Process characteristics

CODcr BOD5 等有机污染物,好氧生化处理可选择接触氧化、活性污泥和高效好氧处理工艺,如膜生物反应器、曝气生物滤池等工艺。 The aerobic biochemical treatment unit removes organic pollutants such as CODcr and BOD5 . The aerobic biochemical treatment can be selected from contact oxidation, activated sludge, and efficient aerobic treatment processes, such as membrane bioreactors and aerated biological filters. Adopting a highly efficient aerobic treatment process with a filtering function can reduce the concentration of suspended solids, which is beneficial to subsequent disinfection.

   3.3.3 Scope of application

( 包括带传染病房的综合医院 ) 和排入自然水体的综合医院污水处理。 It is suitable for sewage treatment in infectious disease hospitals ( including general hospitals with infectious wards ) and general hospitals discharged into natural water bodies.

        简易生化处理工艺 3.4 Simple biochemical treatment process

   3.4.1 Process flow

沼气净化池 消毒 The simple biochemical treatment process is " biogas purification tank disinfection " . The biogas purification tank is divided into a solid-liquid separation zone, an anaerobic filter and a sedimentation filtration zone. The main functions of the three zones are to remove suspended solids, adsorb colloids and soluble substances, further remove and degrade organic pollutants, and finally remove the remaining suspended matters and degrade organic pollutants through precipitation and filtration units to ensure the quality of effluent. 1m3 污泥制取沼气达 15m3 以上时,收集利用;当 1m3 污泥制取沼气不足 15m3 时,收集燃烧处理。 The generated biogas is treated differently according to the amount of gas. When the biogas produced by 1m3 of sludge reaches more than 15m3 , it is collected and used; when the biogas produced by 1m3 of sludge is less than 15m3 , it is collected and treated.

3-4 沼气净化池工作原理图 Figure 3-4 Working principle of biogas purification tank (slightly)

   3.4.2 Process characteristics

The biogas purification tank uses the principle of anaerobic digestion to degrade solid organic matter. The treatment efficiency of biogas purification tank is better than that of decay tank and biogas tank, with low cost, low power consumption and simple management.

   3.4.3 Scope of application

As a transitional measure for sewage treatment in hospitals in remote mountainous areas and underdeveloped areas, secondary treatment or primary treatment with enhanced treatment effects will be gradually realized.

   4 Chapter 4 Hospital sewage treatment system

Hospital sewage treatment mainly includes three parts: pretreatment, physicochemical or biochemical treatment and disinfection of sewage. In order to prevent the secondary pollution of pathogenic microorganisms, the sludge and waste gas generated in the sewage treatment process must also be treated.

        预处理 4.1 preprocessing

The main purpose of pretreatment of hospital sewage is to remove solid pollutants in sewage, adjust water quality and quantity and reasonably absorb feces, which is beneficial for subsequent treatment.

   4.1.1 Septic tank

The septic tanks used for hospital sewage treatment mainly include ordinary septic tanks and biogas purification tanks.

The principle of ordinary septic tanks and biogas purification tanks is to first trap organic solid pollutants through the action of precipitation, and then to degrade organic substances through the action of anaerobic microorganisms. The treatment efficiency of biogas purification tank is better than that of ordinary septic tank.

(GBJ15-88) 3.8.2 3.8.5 条确定。 The calculated volume of the septic tank's sedimentation and decay parts should be determined in accordance with Articles 3.8.2 to 3.8.5 of the Design Code for Water Supply and Drainage of Buildings (GBJ15-88) . 36 h。 The residence time of sewage in the septic tank should not be less than 36 h. For sewage treatment systems without sludge disposal, the septic tank volume should also include the volume of sludge storage.

   4.1.2 Pre-sterilization tank

The purpose of pre-disinfection is to reduce the content of pathogenic microorganisms in sewage to reduce the chance of operators being infected by pathogenic microorganisms.

   、传染病医院病人的排泄物进行预消毒后排入化粪池。 1. The excreta of patients from infectious disease hospitals are pre-sterilized and discharged into septic tanks.

   、传染病医院污水在进入污水处理系统前必须预消毒,预消毒池的接触时间不宜小于 0.5 小时。 2. The sewage from infectious disease hospital must be pre-sterilized before entering the sewage treatment system, and the contact time of the pre-sterilization tank should not be less than 0.5 hours. Common disinfectants are sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, and chlorine dioxide. Lime can also be used for fecal disinfection.

   、对于普通综合医院,可不设预消毒池。 3. For general hospitals, no pre-sterilization tank is required.

   、生化处理如采用加氯进行预消毒则需进行脱氯,或采用臭氧进行预消毒。 4. For biochemical treatment, if chlorine is used for pre-disinfection, dechlorination is required, or ozone is used for pre-disinfection.

   4.1.3 Grille

A grille should be set up in front of the sewage treatment system or the pump, and the grille well and the regulating tank can be constructed jointly.

   、传染病医院的格栅应选用自动机械格栅;在普通医院宜选用自动机械格栅 ( 小规模可根据实际情况采用手动格栅 ) 1. The grille of infectious disease hospital should use automatic mechanical grille; in ordinary hospitals, automatic mechanical grille should be used ( small scale can be used manually according to the actual situation ) .

   、格栅井应密闭,设置通风罩,收集废气以进行集中处理; 2. The grille well should be closed, and a ventilation hood should be set up to collect exhaust gas for centralized processing;

   、栅渣与污水处理产生污泥等一同集中消毒,外运焚烧。 3. The grid slag and the sewage sludge generated by sewage treatment are collectively disinfected together and incinerated for transportation. Sterilization can be done by pasteurization or adding lime.

   、设计应遵循《室外排水设计规范》 GBJ 14 87(1997) 等有关规定。 4. The design shall comply with relevant regulations such as "Outdoor Drainage Design Code" GBJ 14-87 (1997) .

   4.1.4 Regulation pool

   、医院污水处理应设调节池。 1. There should be a regulating tank for hospital sewage treatment. 30~40% 计算。 During continuous operation, its effective volume is calculated according to 30 ~ 40% of the daily treated water volume . In intermittent operation, its effective volume is calculated according to the process operation cycle.

   、调节池宜分二组,每组按 50 %的水量计算。 2. The adjusting tank should be divided into two groups, and each group is calculated based on 50 % of the water volume.

   、调节池应采用封闭结构,设排风口,防沉淀措施宜采用水下搅拌方式。 3. The regulating tank should adopt a closed structure with air outlets. Anti-settling measures should be adopted by underwater stirring methods.

   、调节池产生污泥定期清淘,与污水处理产生污泥一同处理。 4. The sludge produced by the adjustment tank is regularly cleaned and treated together with the sludge produced by sewage treatment.

        加强处理效果的一级处理 4.2 Strengthening the first-level processing effect

Strengthening the primary treatment effect should be achieved in two ways: transforming the existing primary treatment process to enhance the removal effect and adopting the primary intensification treatment technology.

   4.2.1 First level enhancement

The first-level enhanced treatment of hospital sewage generally adopts coagulation sedimentation, filtration, and air flotation processes. The filtered solid-liquid separation method requires backflushing, and the operation and management are more complicated, and the gas release in the air flotation process easily leads to secondary pollution. Therefore, the coagulation sedimentation process is generally used in hospital sewage.

The primary enhanced treatment of hospital sewage should adopt coagulation sedimentation process. 50 %的水量计算。 The coagulation and sedimentation tank should be divided into two groups, and each group is calculated based on 50 % of the water volume.

   、污水处理量小于 20m3 /h 时,沉淀池宜设备化,可采用钢结构或其他结构形式的一体化设备,池形宜为竖流式或斜板沉淀池。 1. When the sewage treatment capacity is less than 20m3 / h , the sedimentation tank should be equipmentized, and integrated equipment of steel structure or other structural forms can be used. The shape of the tank should be a vertical flow or inclined plate sedimentation tank. 20 m3 /h 时,沉淀池宜为钢筋混凝土结构,池形宜为竖流式或平流式沉淀池。 When the sewage treatment capacity is more than 20 m3 / h , the sedimentation tank should be a reinforced concrete structure, and the shape of the tank should be a vertical or advection sedimentation tank.

   、当沉淀池体采用钢结构时,必须采取切实有效的防腐措施。 2. When the steel structure of the sedimentation tank is adopted, practical and effective anticorrosive measures must be taken.

   、当采用斜板沉淀池,必须设置斜板冲洗设施。 3. When using inclined plate sedimentation tanks, inclined plate washing facilities must be set up. Other forms of sedimentation tanks need to take measures to facilitate cleaning and maintenance.

   、设计应遵循《室外排水设计规范》 GBJ 14 87(1997 年版 ) 等有关规定。 4. The design should follow the relevant regulations such as "Outdoor Drainage Design Code" GBJ 14-87 (1997 edition ) .

   4.2.2 Reconstruction of the existing primary treatment process to strengthen the treatment effect

The reconstruction should make full use of the existing treatment facilities according to the actual situation, and reconstruct the structure or operation mode of the septic tanks and contact tanks that are more commonly used in existing hospitals, and add some facilities if necessary.

When there is a reconstruction site, the adjustment tank can be used as a sedimentation tank, and an adjustment tank can be added beside the septic tank.

When the site is insufficient, a coagulation sedimentation tank can be set up on the ground.

       生物处理 4.3 Biological treatment

Hospital sewage is biologically treated. On the one hand, it reduces the concentration of pollutants in the water to meet the discharge standards; on the other hand, it can ensure the disinfection effect. Biological treatment processes mainly include activated sludge method, biological contact oxidation method, membrane bioreactor, aerated biological filter and simple biochemical treatment.

   4.3.1 Activated sludge process

Activated sludge process is a biological wastewater treatment process that uses suspended microorganisms to degrade organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and other pollutants in sewage under aerobic conditions.

   工艺特点 1. Process characteristics

The advantage of the activated sludge process is that it has strong adaptability to sewage with different properties and lower construction costs.

The disadvantages of the activated sludge process are poor operating stability, prone to sludge swelling and sludge loss, and the separation effect is not ideal.

   设计参数 2.Design parameters

GBJ 14 87(1997) 有关规定; The design of the aeration tank and the second settling tank complies with the relevant provisions of the "Outdoor Drainage Design Code" GBJ 14-87 (1997) ;

The sludge load of the aeration tank is based on the effluent organic matter and ammonia nitrogen requirements, and it should meet the nitrification requirements when needed.

  

4-1 活性污泥工艺曝气池主要工艺参数 Table 4-1 Main process parameters of activated sludge process aeration tank

parameter

Reference range

HRT (h)

Air-water ratio

MLSS (g / L)

(kg-BOD 5 /(kg-VSS d)) Sludge load (kg-BOD 5 / (kg-VSS d))

(d) Mud age (d)

12 4 to 12

10 6 to 10

4 2 to 4

0.4 0.1 to 0.4

5 ~ 20

 3 Scope of application

800 床以上水量较大的医院污水处理工程。 The traditional activated sludge method is suitable for hospital sewage treatment projects with a large water volume above 800 beds. 800 床以下、水量较小的医院常采用活性污泥法的变形工艺 —— 序批式活性污泥法( SBR )。 For hospitals with less than 800 beds and a small amount of water, the deformation process of the activated sludge method is often used - sequential batch activated sludge method ( SBR ).

   工艺是活性污泥法的一种变型。 The SBR process is a variant of the activated sludge process. 按周期循环运行,每个周期循环过程包括进水、反应(曝气)、沉淀、排放和待机五个工序。 SBR runs on a cyclic cycle, and each cycle includes five processes: water inlet, reaction (aeration), sedimentation, discharge, and standby. 单个周期的进水、反应、沉淀、排放和待机都是可以进行控制的。 The water inflow, reaction, sedimentation, discharge and standby of SBR can be controlled in a single cycle. / 静止,好氧 / 厌氧),这些反应条件促进污水物理和化学特性有选择的改变。 Each process is associated with specific reaction conditions (mixing / stationary, aerobic / anaerobic) that promote selective changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the wastewater.

   工艺具有流程简单、管理方便、基建投资省、运行费用较低、处理效果好及设备国产化程度高等优点。 The SBR process has the advantages of simple process, convenient management, low capital investment, low operating cost, good processing effect and high degree of equipment localization.

   4.3.2 Biological contact oxidation process

The biological contact oxidation process uses a fixed biological filler as a carrier for microorganisms, the carrier with microorganisms growing is submerged in water, and an aeration system supplies oxygen to the microorganisms in the reactor. Because the microorganisms of the biological contact oxidation method are fixedly grown on the biological filler, the shortcoming of the suspended activated sludge is easily lost, and a high biomass can be maintained in the reactor.

   工艺特点 1. Process characteristics

1 )生物接触氧化法对冲击负荷和水质变化的耐受性强,运行稳定。 ( 1 ) The biological contact oxidation method is highly resistant to impact load and water quality changes, and operates stably.

2 )生物接触氧化法容积负荷高,占地面积小,建设费用较低。 ( 2 ) The biological contact oxidation method has a high volume load, a small footprint and a low construction cost.

3 )生物接触氧化法污泥产量较低,无需污泥回流,运行管理简单。 ( 3 ) The sludge yield of the biological contact oxidation method is low, no sludge return is required, and the operation and management are simple.

4 )生物接触氧化法有时脱落一些细碎生物膜,沉淀性能较差的造成出水中的悬浮固体浓度稍高,一般可达到 30mg/L 左右。 ( 4 ) The biological contact oxidation method sometimes sheds some finely divided biofilms, and the poor sedimentation performance results in a slightly higher concentration of suspended solids in the effluent, which can generally reach about 30 mg / L.

   设计参数 2.Design parameters

1 )生物接触氧化池的填料应采用轻质、高强、防腐蚀、易于挂膜、比表面积大和空隙率高的组合体。 ( 1 ) The packing of the biological contact oxidation tank should be a combination of light weight, high strength, corrosion resistance, easy hanging film, large specific surface area and high porosity.

2 )生物接触氧化法已在实际中长期应用,有关工艺参数见《室外排水设计规范》 GBJ 14 87(1997 年版 ) 等相关的设计手册。 ( 2 ) The biological contact oxidation method has been applied in the long-term in practice. For related process parameters, see the relevant design manuals such as "Outdoor Drainage Design Code" GBJ 14-87 (1997 edition ) .

  

4-2 生物接触氧化法主要工艺参数 Table 4-2 Main process parameters of biological contact oxidation method

parameter

Reference range

HRT (h)

Air-water ratio

(kg-BOD 5 /(m 3 填料 d)) Sludge load (kg-BOD 5 / (m 3 filler d))

1.5 0.5 1.5

15 10 15

5 2 to 5

 3 Scope of application

500 床以下的中小规模医院污水处理工程。 The biological contact oxidation method is suitable for small and medium-sized hospital sewage treatment projects below 500 beds. It is especially suitable for situations such as small site area, small water volume, large fluctuations in water quality, low concentration of pollutants, and difficult to cultivate activated sludge, etc., and convenient management.

   4.3.3 - 生物反应器 Membrane - bioreactor

- 生物反应器 (Membrane BioReactor MBR) 是将膜分离技术与生物反应器结合在一起的新型污水处理工艺。 Membrane BioReactor ( MBR) is a new wastewater treatment process combining membrane separation technology with bioreactor. MBR 和一体式 MBR 两大类。 According to the installation position of the membrane separation module, it can be divided into two categories : separated MBR and integrated MBR .

   工艺特点 1. Process characteristics

   工艺用膜组件代替了传统活性污泥工艺中的二沉池,可进行高效的固液分离,克服了传统工艺中出水水质不够稳定、污泥容易膨胀等不足,具有下列优点: The MBR process replaces the secondary sedimentation tank in the traditional activated sludge process with a membrane module, which can perform efficient solid-liquid separation. It overcomes the disadvantages such as instable water quality in the traditional process and easy expansion of sludge.

1 ( 1 )   SS ,对细菌和病毒也有很好的截留效果。 Strong anti- shock load capacity, high quality and stable effluent water quality, can completely remove SS , and has a good retention effect on bacteria and viruses.

2 ( 2 )   (HRT) 和污泥龄 (SRT) 的完全分离,使运行控制更加灵活稳定;生物反应器内微生物量浓度高,可高达 10g /L 以上,处理装置容积负荷高,占地面积小,减小了硝化所需体积。 The complete separation of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the sludge age (SRT) of the reactor is achieved to make the operation control more flexible and stable. The concentration of microbial biomass in the bioreactor can be as high as 10 g / L or more. The small ground area reduces the volume required for nitrification.

3 ( 3 )   It is beneficial to the retention and growth of slow-proliferating microorganisms, and the system's nitrification efficiency is improved. It can prolong the hydraulic retention time of some non-degradable organics in the system, which is conducive to improving the degradation efficiency of non-degradable organics.

4 MBR 剩余污泥产量低,甚至无剩余污泥排放,降低了污泥处理费用。 ( 4 ) MBR's remaining sludge production is low, and there is no discharge of surplus sludge, reducing sludge treatment costs.

   设计参数 2.Design parameters

 

4-3 一体式 MBR 主要工艺参数 Table 4-3 Main process parameters of integrated MBR

parameter

Reference range

HRT (h)

Air-water ratio

MLSS (g / L)

(kg-BOD 5 /(kg-VSS d)) Sludge load (kg-BOD 5 / (kg-VSS d))

(L/(m 2 h)) Membrane flux (L / (m 2 h))

5 3 to 5

30 20 30

10 6 to 10

0.2 0.1 0.2

20 10 20

 3 Scope of application

300 床以下的小规模的医院污水处理工程,尤其适用于场地面积小、水质要求高和紫外消毒等的情况。 This process is suitable for small-scale hospital sewage treatment projects below 300 beds, and is especially suitable for small areas, high water quality requirements, and UV disinfection.

   4.3.4 Aerated biological filter

(BAF) 是生物膜处理工艺的一种。 Aerated biological filter (BAF) is a kind of biofilm treatment process. A new type of coarse and porous granular filter material has a large specific surface area, a biofilm grows on the surface of the filter material, and aeration is provided at the bottom of the pool. When the sewage flows through the filter bed, the pollutants are first filtered and adsorbed, and then the surface of the filter material Oxidative decomposition of microorganisms. BAF 已从单一的工艺逐渐发展成系列综合工艺,有去除悬浮物、 COD BOD 、硝化、脱氮等作用。 At present, BAF has gradually developed from a single process to a series of comprehensive processes, which have the functions of removing suspended matter, COD , BOD , nitrification, and denitrification.

   工艺特点 1. Process characteristics

1 ( 1 )   The effluent quality is good. 可去除污水中的悬浮物、 COD 、细菌和大部分氨氮,出水 SS 小于 10mg/L BAF can remove suspended matter, COD , bacteria and most ammonia nitrogen in sewage , and the effluent SS is less than 10mg / L.

2 ( 2 )   Microorganisms grow on the surface of the rough and porous filter material, which is not easy to lose, has certain adaptability to toxic and harmful substances, high operational reliability, and strong anti-shock load capacity. No sludge swelling problem.

3 BAF 容积负荷高于常规处理工艺,并可省去二沉池和污泥回流泵房,占地面积通常为常规工艺的 1/3 1/5 ( 3 ) The BAF volume load is higher than the conventional treatment process, and the secondary sedimentation tank and sludge return pump room can be omitted, and the area is usually 1/3 to 1/5 of the conventional process .

12 ( 12 )   Backflushing is required. The amount of backflushing water is large and the operation mode is complex, but it is easy to realize self-control.

   设计参数 2.Design parameters

   4-4 BAF 的主要工艺参数 Table 4-4 Main process parameters of BAF

Minute   class

Participate   number

Fan   Encircle

Construct   Make

Participate   number

(mm) Filter material diameter (mm)

(m) Biological filter bed height (m)

6 3 to 6

4 3 to 4

Transport   Row

Participate   number

(m 3 /(m 2 ·h)) Hydraulic load (m 3 / (m 2 · h))

Air-water ratio

(kgBOD 5 /(m 3 ·d)) Volume load (kgBOD 5 / (m 3 · d))

3 2 to 3

6 4 to 6

2 1 to 2

Backwash

Participate   number

(m/h) Flushing water flow rate (m / h)

(m/h) Flushing air speed (m / h)

(h) Rinse cycle (h)

(min) Rinse time (min)

50 30 50

70 40 70

twenty four

30 15 30

 3 Scope of application

300 床以下的小规模医院污水处理工程,尤其适用于场地面积小和水质要求高等的情况。 This process is suitable for sewage treatment projects in small-scale hospitals under 300 beds, and is especially suitable for small areas and high water quality requirements.

   4.3.5 Simple biochemical treatment process

   工艺特点: 1. Process characteristics:

The biogas purification tank uses the principle of anaerobic digestion to degrade solid organic matter. The treatment efficiency of biogas purification tank is better than that of decay tank and biogas tank, with low cost, low power consumption and simple management.

   适用条件 2. Applicable conditions

For small general hospitals in economically underdeveloped areas, simple biochemical treatment can be adopted as a transition treatment measure when conditions are not met, and then secondary treatment or primary treatment with enhanced treatment effect can be gradually realized.

4-5 中。 The characteristics, scope of application and investment level of the above five processes are summarized in Table 4-5 .

4-5 不同生物处理工艺的综合比较 Table 4-5 Comprehensive comparison of different biological treatment processes

Process type

advantage

Disadvantage

Scope of application

Infrastructure investment

Activated sludge process

Strong adaptability to different types of sewage.

Poor running stability, prone to sludge swelling and sludge loss, the separation effect is not ideal

床以上的水量较大的医院污水处理工程; 800 床以下医院采用 SBR Sewage treatment projects for hospitals with large water volumes above 800 beds; SBR method for hospitals below 800 beds

Lower

Biological contact oxidation process

High shock load capacity and stable operation; high volume load and small footprint; low sludge output; no sludge backflow required, simple operation management.

Partial shedding of the biofilm caused a slightly higher concentration of suspended solids in the effluent.

床以下的中小规模医院污水处理工程。 Small and medium-sized hospital sewage treatment project with less than 500 beds. It is suitable for small sites, small water volume, large water quality fluctuations, and difficult to cultivate microorganisms.

in

- 生物反应器 Membrane - bioreactor

SS 和病原体;占地面积小;剩余污泥产量低甚至无。 Strong impact load resistance, high quality and stable effluent water quality, effective removal of SS and pathogens; small footprint; low or no residual sludge production.

The gas-water ratio is high, the membrane needs to be backwashed, and the energy consumption and operating costs are high.

床以下小规模医院污水处理工程;医院面积小,水质要求高等情况。 Sewage treatment project for small-scale hospitals below 300 beds; small hospital area and high water quality requirements.

high

Aerated biological filter

The quality of the effluent water is good; the operation reliability is high, the anti-shock load capacity is strong; there is no sludge expansion problem; The volume load is high, the secondary sedimentation tank and sludge return are eliminated, and the area is small.

Need to backwash, the operation mode is more complicated; Large amount of recoil water.

床以下小规模医院污水处理工程。 Small-scale hospital sewage treatment project below 300 beds.

Higher

Simple biochemical treatment process

  Low cost, low power consumption and simple management.

COD BOD 等理化指标不能保证达标。 Physical and chemical indicators such as effluent COD and BOD cannot guarantee compliance.

As a transitional measure for sewage treatment in hospitals in remote mountainous areas and underdeveloped areas, secondary treatment or primary treatment with enhanced treatment effects will be gradually realized.  

low

      

   5 Chapter 5 Hospital sewage disinfection technology

医院污水常用消毒技术 5.1 commonly used disinfection technology of hospital sewage

Hospital sewage disinfection is an important process for hospital sewage treatment, and its purpose is to kill various pathogenic bacteria in sewage. ( 如氯气、二氧化氯、次氯酸钠 ) 、氧化剂消毒 ( 如臭氧、过氧乙酸 ) 、辐射消毒 ( 如紫外线、 γ 射线 ) Common disinfection processes for hospital sewage disinfection include chlorine disinfection ( such as chlorine, chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite ) , oxidant disinfection ( such as ozone, peroxyacetic acid ) , and radiation disinfection ( such as ultraviolet rays and gamma rays ) . 5-1 对常用的氯消毒、臭氧消毒、二氧化氯消毒、次氯酸钠消毒和紫外线消毒法的优缺点进行了归纳和比较。 Table 5-1 summarizes and compares the advantages and disadvantages of commonly used chlorine disinfection, ozone disinfection, chlorine dioxide disinfection, sodium hypochlorite disinfection, and ultraviolet disinfection methods.

5-1 常用消毒方法比较 Table 5-1 Comparison of common disinfection methods

 

advantage

Disadvantage

Disinfection effect

chlorine

2 Cl 2

It has a continuous disinfection effect; the process is simple and the technology is mature; the operation is simple and the dosage is accurate.

  (THMs) ;处理水有氯或氯酚味;氯气腐蚀性强;运行管理有一定的危险性。 Generate carcinogenic and teratogenic organic chlorides (THMs) ; treated water has chlorine or chlorophenol smell; chlorine gas is highly corrosive; operation and management have certain risks.

  Can effectively sterilize, but the virus killing effect is poor.  

Sodium hypochlorite

NaOCl

Non-toxic, no danger in operation and management.

  (THMs) ;使水的 PH 值升高。 Produce carcinogenic and teratogenic organic chlorides (THMs) ; increase the pH of water .  

Cl 2 杀菌效果相同。 It has the same bactericidal effect as Cl 2 .

carbon dioxide

2 ClO 2

(THMs) ;投放简单方便;不受 pH 影响。 It has strong oxidation and does not produce organic chlorides (THMs) ; it is simple and convenient to put in; it is not affected by pH .

2 运行、管理有一定的危险性;只能就地生产,就地使用;制取设备复杂;操作管理要求高。 ClO 2 operation and management have certain dangers; it can only be produced and used locally; the production equipment is complicated; and the operation and management requirements are high.

  Cl 2 杀菌效果好。 Better sterilization effect than Cl 2 .

ozone

3 O 3

  pH 影响;能增加水中溶解氧。 It has strong oxidizing ability and short contact time; it does not produce organic chloride; it is not affected by pH ; it can increase dissolved oxygen in water.

Ozone operation and management have certain risks; complex operations; low yields of ozone production; large power consumption; large capital investment; high operating costs.  

Both sterilizing and killing viruses are very effective.

UV

  No harmful residues; no odor; simple operation, easy to realize automation; low operation management and maintenance costs.

  Large power consumption; UV lamps and quartz sleeves need to be replaced regularly; higher water quality requirements for treated water; no subsequent sterilization.  

The effect is good, but there are requirements for the concentration of suspended solids.

        液氯消毒系统 5.2 Liquid chlorine disinfection system

     Liquid chlorine disinfection is one of the most commonly used methods in hospital sewage disinfection. (Cl2) 是一种强氧化剂和广谱杀菌剂,能有效杀死污水中的细菌和病毒,并具有持续消毒作用。 Chlorine (Cl2) is a strong oxidant and a broad-spectrum fungicide, which can effectively kill bacteria and viruses in sewage and has a continuous disinfection effect. Chlorine disinfection has the advantages of easy availability of drugs and low cost; simple process and mature technology; simple operation and accurate dosing; does not require huge equipment. However, chlorine gas is toxic and corrosive, and it is dangerous to operate and manage.

     Chlorine is a pressurized liquefied gas and is generally shipped in pressure vessels such as tanks, tankers, tankers and barges.

     The liquid chlorine disinfection system is mainly composed of a chlorine storage cylinder, a chlorinator, a water injector, a solenoid valve, a chlorination pipeline, a chlorination room and a liquid chlorine storage room.

   5.2.1 Chlorine bottle

  一般情况下,宜采用小容量的氯瓶。 (1) Generally, a small-capacity chlorine bottle should be used. 3 个月。 The chlorine bottle should be used for no more than 3 months at a time.

  单位时间内每个氯瓶的氯气最大排出量应符合下述规定: (2) The maximum amount of chlorine discharged from each chlorine bottle per unit time shall meet the following requirements:

40 的氯瓶: 750g /h 500kg 的氯瓶: 3000g /h Chlorine bottle with a volume of 40 liters : 750g / h ; 500kg chlorine bottle: 3000g / h .

   5.2.2 Chlorinator

When the hospital sewage is sterilized with liquid chlorine, a vacuum chlorinator must be used, and the outlet of the chlorine injection pipe is submerged in the sewage.

0.2MPa 压力,在水射器内形成负压,将氯气吸入并混合,然后将氯水投加至加氯点。 Chlorine is added to the sewage through the water ejector of the chlorinator. The water ejector requires the tap water to have a pressure of 0.2 MPa . A negative pressure is formed in the water ejector. The chlorine gas is sucked in and mixed, and then the chlorine water is added to the chlorinated water. point.

There are two typical methods of chlorination in hospital wastewater treatment processes: siphon-type constant-ratio chlorination and lift-type automatic constant-ratio chlorination.

   当医院污水站内集水管道高于站外公共污水管或水体水位时(通常需要有 600mm 的高差),可采用虹吸式定比加氯消毒系统。 (1) When the water collection pipe in the hospital sewage station is higher than the public sewage pipe or water level outside the station (usually a height difference of 600mm is required ), a siphon fixed-chlorine disinfection system can be used.

   当污水需要提升才能排出站外,采用提升式自动定比加氯,消毒投加设备与提升泵同步运行,由集水池的水位控制污水泵自动启动,同时控制投药系统同步运行。 (2) When the sewage needs to be lifted before it can be discharged outside the station, a lift-type automatic fixed-ratio chlorination is adopted. The disinfection and dosing equipment runs synchronously with the lift pump. The water level of the water collection tank controls the sewage pump to automatically start, and at the same time controls the dosing system to run simultaneously.

   5.2.3 Chlorination system pipe

   输送氯气的管道应使用紫铜管;输送氯溶液的管道宜采用硬聚氯乙烯管,阀门采用塑料隔膜阀。 (1) Copper pipes shall be used for the delivery of chlorine gas; rigid polyvinyl chloride pipes shall be used for the delivery of chlorine solutions, and plastic diaphragm valves shall be used for the valves.

   加氯系统的管路应设耐腐蚀的压力表,水射器的给水管上应设普通压力表。 (2) The pipeline of the chlorination system shall be provided with a corrosion-resistant pressure gauge, and the water supply pipe of the ejector shall be provided with an ordinary pressure gauge.

   加氯系统的管道应明装,埋地管道应设在管沟内,管道应有一定的支撑和坡度。 (3) The pipelines of the chlorination system shall be installed in the open, buried pipelines shall be located in the trenches, and the pipelines shall have certain support and slope.

   5.2.4 Chlorination room and liquid chlorine storage room

When using liquid chlorine for disinfection, a liquid chlorine storage room and a chlorine room should be provided.

   加氯间 (1) Chlorination room

The choice of the location of the sewage chlorination room in the hospital should be determined based on factors such as the overall plan of the hospital, the location of the outlets, environmental sanitation requirements, wind direction, maintenance management and transportation.

Chlorination room is mainly equipped with chlorination equipment other than chlorine bottles. Necessary measuring, safety and alarm devices shall be provided in the chlorination room. 12 / 小时设计。 The door for adding chlorine is opened outwards. Explosion-proof lamp lighting and other explosion-proof motors and appliances are used. An exhaust fan is set up. The air exchange frequency is designed as 12 times per hour. The exhaust fan is set at a low place in the chlorine chamber, and the outdoor environment is considered, and it should be far away from the place where people move. Consideration shall be given to preventing the corrosion of chlorine gas in the electrical room, piping and the ground of the chlorination room.

   液氯贮藏室 (2) Liquid chlorine storage room

The liquid chlorine storage room should be as close to the dosing place as possible. 40kg 小瓶可不安装吊装设备)和磅秤。 The liquid chlorine storage room must be equipped with a lifting device ( without a lifting device using a 40kg vial) and a scale.

The liquid chlorine storage room should be provided with a pool that can accommodate chlorine bottles. The pool should maintain a certain water level. Once the chlorine bottle leaks, the chlorine bottle should be quickly pushed into the pool.

400mm 处。 The door of the liquid chlorine storage room that directly leads to the outside should be opened outwards. Ventilation equipment should be provided, and the vent should be located 400mm above the ground. The lighting uses explosion-proof lamps, safety and chlorine alarm devices.

   5.2.5 Scope of application

   、液氯消毒不宜用于人口稠密区内医院及小规模医院的污水消毒。 1. Liquid chlorine disinfection should not be used for sewage disinfection in hospitals and small-scale hospitals in densely populated areas. (>1000 ) 且管理水平较高的医院污水处理系统。 It can be used for large-scale (> 1000 beds ) and high-level hospital sewage treatment systems far from the populated areas .

   、氯消毒由于余氯过高会造成地表水体内水生生物的死亡,因此当医院污水排至地表水体时应采取脱氯措施或慎用氯消毒。 2. Chlorine disinfection Due to excessive residual chlorine, the death of aquatic organisms in the surface water will be caused. Therefore, when the hospital sewage is discharged to the surface water, dechlorination measures or chlorine disinfection should be taken with caution.

   5.2.6 Operation management

   、严禁无加氯机直接向污水中投加氯气。 1. It is strictly forbidden to directly add chlorine gas to sewage without a chlorine adding machine.

   、液氯用槽车和钢瓶包装。 2. Liquid chlorine is packed in tank cars and steel bottles. 1.25kg /L ,槽车装充装重量不得大于 1.20kg /L Chlorine packaging volume: the bottled filling weight shall not be greater than 1.25kg / L , and the tank truck filling weight shall not be greater than 1.20kg / L.

   、在操作间或加氯间进口处应放置方便使用并有明显标志的工具箱、维修工具、药品及防毒面具等。 3. Toolboxes, maintenance tools, medicines and gas masks, etc. which are easy to use and have obvious signs should be placed at the entrance of the operation room or the chlorination room.

   、氯瓶放置在磅秤或氯量显示仪上,小瓶应该竖放、大钢瓶则是卧放并固定,不得使其滚动。 4. The chlorine bottle is placed on the scale or the chlorine display. The small bottle should be placed vertically, and the large steel bottle should be placed and fixed. Do not make it roll.

   、并联的氯瓶应设置备用瓶,通过自动或手动切换装置更换新氯瓶。 5. Parallel chlorine bottles shall be provided with spare bottles, and new chlorine bottles shall be replaced by automatic or manual switching devices.

   、氯瓶和加氯机要避开暖气、阳光和明火。 6. Keep chlorine bottles and chlorinators away from heating, sunlight and open flames. 15 )。 In order to ensure the normal supply of chlorine, the indoor temperature between the chlorine bottles should be kept at medium temperature ( 15 ).

   、液氯运输、贮存等按 GB11984 执行。 7. Liquid chlorine transportation and storage shall be implemented in accordance with GB11984 .

        二氧化氯消毒 5.3 Chlorine dioxide disinfection

Chlorine dioxide has the function of high-efficiency oxidant, disinfectant and bleach. As a strengthened oxidant, there is no organic chloride in the product it oxidizes; as a disinfectant, it has a broad-spectrum disinfection effect.

Chlorine dioxide must be prepared on site. The methods for preparing chlorine dioxide on site are mainly chemical and electrolytic methods.

   、化学法制备二氧化氯消毒工艺是以氯酸钠、亚氯酸钠、次氯酸钠和盐酸等为原料,经反应器发生化学反应产生二氧化氯气体,再经水射器混合形成二氧化氯水溶液,然后投加到被消毒的污水中进入消毒接触池消毒。 1. Chemical preparation of chlorine dioxide disinfection process is based on sodium chlorate, sodium chlorite, sodium hypochlorite and hydrochloric acid as raw materials. Chemical reaction occurs in the reactor to produce chlorine dioxide gas, which is then mixed by a water jet to form chlorine dioxide The aqueous solution is then added to the sterilized sewage into a sterilization contact tank for disinfection.

   、电解法制备二氧化氯消毒工艺是以饱和食盐水为原料通过电解产生二氧化氯、氯气、过氧化氢、臭氧的混合气体,用于消毒。 2. Electrolytic method to prepare chlorine dioxide disinfection process is to produce a mixed gas of chlorine dioxide, chlorine gas, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone through electrolysis using saturated salt water as raw material for disinfection. The synergistic effect of the mixed gas has a broad-spectrum sterilization ability, and its disinfection effect is much stronger than any single disinfectant.

   5.3.1 engineering design

   、化学法制备二氧化氯消毒工艺 1. Chemical disinfection of chlorine dioxide

   二氧化氯消毒系统设计和发生器选型应根据医院污水的水质水量和处理要求确定,并考虑备用。 (1) The design of the chlorine dioxide disinfection system and the selection of generators should be determined according to the water quality and treatment requirements of the hospital sewage, and consideration should be given to reserve.

   因原料为强氧化性或强酸化学品,储存间必须考虑分开安全储放;储存量为 10 30 天的用量。 (2) Because the raw materials are strong oxidizing or strong acid chemicals, the storage room must be considered for safe storage separately; the storage capacity is 10 to 30 days.

   二氧化氯溶液浓度应小于 0.4% ,其投加量应与污水定比或用余氯量自动控制。 (3) The concentration of the chlorine dioxide solution should be less than 0.4% , and the dosage should be proportional to the sewage or automatically controlled with the remaining chlorine.

   应设计二氧化氯监测报警和通风设备。 (4) Chlorine dioxide monitoring alarm and ventilation equipment shall be designed.

   、电解法制备二氧化氯消毒工艺 2. Disinfection process for preparing chlorine dioxide by electrolytic method

   电解法制备二氧化氯设备主要由电解槽、电源、水泵和水射器组成。 (1) The equipment for preparing chlorine dioxide by electrolytic method is mainly composed of an electrolytic tank, a power source, a water pump and a water ejector. 6V 12V 两种直流电源。 The electrolytic cell uses 6V or 12V DC power.

   电解法制备二氧化氯设备的溶盐装置一般与发生器一体化,但因二氧花氯为混合消毒气体,为了能定比投氯,必须设置溶液箱。 (2) The salt-dissolving device of the equipment for preparing chlorine dioxide by electrolytic method is generally integrated with the generator, but since dioxin is a mixed disinfection gas, a solution tank must be provided in order to be able to dose chlorine at a specific ratio.

   二氧化氯是由水射器带出并溶于水的,所以设备间必须有足够的压力自来水,如水压不够 0.2MPa ,需加设管道泵。 (3) Chlorine dioxide is taken out by the water ejector and dissolved in water, so there must be sufficient pressure tap water between the equipment. If the water pressure is not 0.2MPa , a pipeline pump must be installed.

   应注意设备排氢管的设计,及时排除在设备运行过程中产生的可爆炸气体。 (4) Attention should be paid to the design of the equipment's hydrogen discharge pipe, and the explosive gas generated during the operation of the equipment should be eliminated in time.

   5.3.2 Scope of application

   、二氧化氯消毒不宜用于人口稠密区及大规模医院的污水消毒。 1. Chlorine dioxide disinfection should not be used for sewage disinfection in densely populated areas and large-scale hospitals. It can be used in a small-scale hospital sewage treatment system far from the populated area.

   、由于二氧化氯在空气中和水中浓度达到一定程度会发生爆炸,因此该法适用于管理水平较高的医院污水处理系统。 2. As the concentration of chlorine dioxide in the air and water will explode to a certain extent, this method is applicable to hospital sewage treatment systems with high management level.

   、化学法适用于规模 >500 床的医院污水处理消毒系统。 3. The chemical method is suitable for hospital sewage treatment and disinfection systems with a size of > 500 beds.

   、二氧化氯消毒由于余氯过高会造成地表水体内水生生物的死亡,因此当医院污水排至地表水体时应采取脱氯措施或慎用二氧化氯消毒。 4. Chlorine dioxide disinfection Due to excessive residual chlorine, the death of aquatic organisms in the surface water will be caused. Therefore, when the hospital sewage is discharged to the surface water, dechlorination measures should be taken or disinfected with caution.

   5.3.3 Operation management

   、二氧化氯活化液不稳定,应现配现用。 1. The chlorine dioxide activating solution is unstable and should be used now.

   、配制溶液时,忌与碱或有机物相混合。 2. When preparing the solution, avoid mixing with alkali or organic matter.

   、投加量根据实际水质水量实验确定。 3 , the amount of dosing is determined according to the actual water quality and quantity experiments.

        次氯酸钠消毒 5.4 Sodium hypochlorite disinfection

Sodium hypochlorite disinfection uses a commercial sodium hypochlorite solution or a sodium hypochlorite solution prepared on site as a disinfectant. The hypochlorous acid produced after its dissolution has a good killing effect on pathogens in water and disinfects sewage.

   、次氯酸钠发生器 1.Sodium hypochlorite generator

( 或海水 ) 制取次氯酸钠水溶液。 An aqueous sodium hypochlorite solution was prepared by using electrolytic salt water ( or seawater ) . 10 12% ( 有效氯含量 ) The advantages of this generator are simple structure, high degree of automation, low power consumption, and low salt consumption. The sodium hypochlorite produced can reach 10-12% ( effective chlorine content ) . The disadvantage is that calcium and magnesium deposits are easily formed on the electrode surface, and the electrode needs to be cleaned frequently.

10% 12% ,次氯酸钠为淡黄色透明液体,具有与氯气相同的特殊气味。 Commercial sodium hypochlorite solution has an effective chlorine content of 10% to 12% . Sodium hypochlorite is a pale yellow transparent liquid with the same special odor as chlorine gas.

   、漂白粉及漂粉精消毒 2. Fine disinfection of bleaching powder and bleaching powder

Ca(OCL)2 )为白色粉末状,具有强烈气味,化学性质不稳定,易分解而失效,能使大部分有机色彩氧化褪色或漂白。 Bleaching powder ( Ca (OCL) 2 ) is a white powder with strong odor, unstable chemical properties, easy to decompose and fail, and can oxidize and fade most organic colors or bleach.

65% 70% ,是一种较稳定的氯化剂,密封良好时能长期保存 (1 年左右 ) Bleaching powder is relatively pure calcium hypochlorite with an effective chlorine content of 65% to 70% . It is a relatively stable chlorinating agent and can be stored for a long time ( about 1 year ) when it is well sealed . Flocculant is used in hospital sewage disinfection. Powder can be directly added to hospital sewage. It can be used in dry addition method, or it can be dissolved in water to make a solution and added to sewage. plus. Another method is to add bleaching powder to make tablets using a sterilizer.

   5.4.1 engineering design

   、配套建筑物及设备 1. Supporting buildings and equipment

The sewage treatment station disinfected with sodium hypochlorite generator shall be arranged according to the type of sodium hypochlorite generator and the requirements of its auxiliary equipment. Generally, a special salt preparation room and a sodium hypochlorite generator equipment room are required. The salt preparation room and the sodium hypochlorite generator equipment room should be divided into two rooms.

   、主要工艺参数 2. Main process parameters

   根据污水的水质水量、处理级别计算投氯量,按投氯量选择次氯酸钠发生器型号及台数,然后计算用盐量、贮盐量。 (1) Calculate the amount of chlorine input according to the water quality of the sewage and the treatment level. Select the type and number of sodium hypochlorite generators according to the amount of chlorine input, and then calculate the amount of salt and salt storage.

   污水量按最高日污水量计算,盐水池按 12 24h 设计。 (2) The sewage volume is calculated based on the maximum daily sewage volume, and the brine pond is designed for 12 to 24 hours .

   次氯酸钠溶液贮槽按 8 16h 设计。 (3) The sodium hypochlorite solution storage tank is designed for 8 to 16 hours .

   、次氯酸钠的投配 3.Dosing of sodium hypochlorite

The sodium hypochlorite solution produced by the sodium hypochlorite generator is stored in the storage tank. It can be automatically added by siphon or connected with a sewage pump. In a sewage pipe.

   、漂精粉的投加 4 , dosing powder

   漂精粉的湿式投加系统需设置溶药槽和投配槽。 (1) The wet-type dosing system for bleaching powder needs to be equipped with a solution tank and a dosing tank.

   溶药槽和投配槽一般用塑料制成,溶药槽需设有搅拌器,一般设置 2 个,投配槽可设 1 个,沉渣排入下水道,溶药槽和投配槽大小按处理污水量和投药量计算确定。 (2) Medicine dissolving tank and dosing tank are generally made of plastic. The medicine dissolving tank needs to be equipped with a stirrer. Generally, two can be set, and one can be set up. The size is determined according to the amount of treated sewage and the amount of medicine.

   5.4.2 Scope of application

   、次氯酸钠消毒不宜用于人口稠密区内及大规模医院的污水消毒。 1. Sodium hypochlorite disinfection should not be used for sewage disinfection in densely populated areas and large-scale hospitals. It can be used in a small-scale hospital sewage treatment system far from the populated area.

   、漂粉精、漂白粉适用于规模 <300 床的经济欠发达地区医院污水处理消毒系统。 2. Bleaching powder and bleaching powder are suitable for the sewage treatment and disinfection system of hospitals in less-developed areas with a scale of less than 300 beds.

   、电解法次氯酸钠发生器适用于管理水平较高的医院污水处理消毒系统。 3. Electrolytic sodium hypochlorite generator is suitable for high-level hospital sewage treatment and disinfection system.

   、二氧化氯消毒由于余氯过高会造成地表水体内水生生物的死亡,因此当医院污水排至地表水体时应采取脱氯措施或慎用氯消毒。 4. Chlorine dioxide disinfection Due to excessive residual chlorine, the death of aquatic organisms in the surface water will be caused. Therefore, when the hospital sewage is discharged to the surface water, dechlorination measures or chlorine disinfection should be used with caution.

   5.4.3 Operation management

   、次氯酸钠溶液贮槽应防腐蚀,可用聚氯乙烯板或玻璃钢制作。 1. The storage tank of sodium hypochlorite solution should be anti-corrosion, and it can be made of polyvinyl chloride board or glass fiber reinforced plastic.

   、在使用次氯酸钠溶液消毒时,必须注意保存条件,经常分析化验其有效氯含量,以便掌握有效氯的衰减情况,确定每次的最佳送货量和送货周期,减少氯的损失。 2. When using sodium hypochlorite solution for disinfection, it is necessary to pay attention to storage conditions, and often analyze and test its effective chlorine content, in order to grasp the attenuation of available chlorine, determine the optimal delivery volume and delivery cycle each time, and reduce chlorine loss.

   、商品次氯酸钠应在 21 左右避光贮存。 3. Commercial sodium hypochlorite should be stored in the dark at about 21 .

   、漂白粉应贮存于干燥、阴凉通风的仓库中,防止日晒雨淋,应远离火种和热源,不可与有机物、酸类及还原剂共存。 4. Bleach powder should be stored in a dry, cool and ventilated warehouse to prevent sunlight and rain. It should be kept away from fire and heat sources, and cannot coexist with organic matter, acids and reducing agents.

   、漂粉精放入溶药槽,加水配制成有效氯含量为 1% 5% 的溶液,静止澄清,使用上清液投加。 5. Put the bleaching powder into the medicine dissolving tank, add water to prepare a solution with an effective chlorine content of 1% to 5% , clarify at rest, and use the supernatant to add. 1 2 次。 Prepare 1 or 2 times daily.

       氯消毒接触池 5.5 Chlorine disinfection contact tank

   、医院污水消毒按运行方式可分为连续消毒和间歇消毒两种方式。 1. Hospital sewage disinfection can be divided into continuous disinfection and intermittent disinfection according to the operation mode.

   、接触消毒池的容积应满足接触时间和污泥沉积的要求。 2. The volume of the contact disinfection tank should meet the requirements of contact time and sludge deposition. 1.5 小时,综合医院污水接触时间不宜小于 1.0 小时。 The contact time of sewage in infectious disease hospitals should not be less than 1.5 hours, and the contact time of sewage in general hospitals should not be less than 1.0 hours.

   、连续式消毒的接触池有效容积为污水部分容积和污泥部分容积之和。 3. The effective volume of the continuous disinfection contact tank is the sum of the volume of sewage and the volume of sludge.

   、间歇式消毒时,接触池的总有效容积应根据工作班次、消毒周期确定,一般宜为调节池容积的 1/2 4. In the case of intermittent disinfection, the total effective volume of the contact tank should be determined according to the work shift and disinfection cycle. Generally, it should be 1/2 of the volume of the adjustment tank .

   、接触消毒池一般分为两格,每格容积为总容积的一半。 5 , the contact disinfection tank is generally divided into two cells, each cell volume is half of the total volume. ( ) ,避免短流。 Diversion walls ( boards ) should be set up in the pool to avoid short flow. ( ) 的净距应根据水量和维修空间要求确定,一般为 600 700mm The clear distance of the diversion wall ( board ) should be determined according to the water volume and maintenance space requirements, and is generally 600 to 700 mm . 20:1 The length and width ratio of the contact pool should not be less than 20: 1 . A sampling port shall be provided at the exit of the contact cell.

   、设计时应按设计选定的处理工艺流程的实际运行情况,按最不利情况进行组合,校核实际接触时间,以满足设计要求。 6. The design should be based on the actual operating conditions of the treatment process selected by the design, and according to the most unfavorable conditions, check the actual contact time to meet the design requirements.

        氯消毒设计要点 5.6 Design Points of Chlorine Disinfection

When the wastewater is disinfected by chlorine, the design chlorine content can be determined according to the following data:

   、液氯消毒系统参照《室外排水设计规范》 GBJ14-87 有关章节进行设计。 1. The liquid chlorine disinfection system is designed in accordance with the relevant chapters of "Outdoor Drainage Design Code" GBJ14-87 .

   、加强处理效果的一级处理出水的设计加氯量以有效氯计,一般为 30-50mg/L 2. The design chlorine content of the primary treatment effluent for enhanced treatment effect is based on available chlorine, generally 30-50mg / L.

   、二级处理出水的设计参考加氯量一般为 10-15 mg (有效氯) /L 3. The design reference for secondary treatment effluent is generally 10-15 mg (available chlorine) / L.

   、当污水采用其他方法消毒时,其设计投加量应根据具体水质确定。 4. When the sewage is disinfected by other methods, its design dosage should be determined according to the specific water quality.

   、加药设备至少为 2 套, 1 1 备。 5. Dosing equipment is at least 2 sets, 1 for 1 use .

   、氯投加量为参考值,运行中应根据余氯量和实际水质水量实验确定投加量。 6. Chlorine dosing amount is a reference value. During operation, the dosing amount should be determined based on the remaining chlorine amount and actual water quality and water quantity experiments.

        臭氧消毒 5.7 Ozone disinfection

O 3 ,具有特殊的刺激性臭味,是国际公认的绿色环保型杀菌消毒剂。 Ozone, with a molecular formula of O 3 , has a special irritating odor and is an internationally recognized green environmental protection sterilization disinfectant. O )和羟基( OH ),羟基( OH )对各种致病微生物有极强的杀灭作用,单原子氧( O )具有强氧化能力,对各种病毒、细菌均有很强的杀灭能力。 Ozone produces monoatomic oxygen ( O ) and hydroxyl ( OH ) with very strong oxidizing ability in water . Hydroxyl ( OH ) has a strong killing effect on various pathogenic microorganisms. Monoatomic oxygen ( O ) has strong oxidizing ability. It has strong killing ability against various viruses and bacteria.

pH5.6 9.8 、水温 0 37 范围内,臭氧消毒性能稳定;无二次污染;能改善水的物理和感官性质,有脱色和去嗅去味作用。 Ozone disinfection has fast response and low dosage; strong adaptability, stable ozone disinfection performance in the range of pH 5.6 to 9.8 and water temperature of 0 to 37 ; no secondary pollution; can improve the physical and sensory properties of water, decolorization And to smell and smell. However, the disadvantages are no continuous disinfection function, only on-site production and use, high cost of ozone disinfection equipment, and large power consumption.

The ozone preparation methods include corona discharge method, ultraviolet method, chemical method and radiation method, etc. Generally, corona discharge method is used in engineering.

   5.7.1 engineering design

   、医院污水臭氧处理站应设置空压机房、臭氧发生器设备间和操作间。 1. Hospital sewage ozone treatment station shall be provided with air compressor room, ozone generator equipment room and operation room. The air compressor room is installed with the air compressor, and the air compressor should be shockproof and prevent noise. There should be equipment maintenance space between the ozone generators. Ozone contact towers should be located indoors in cold areas, and exhaust pipes should be set up to exhaust them after treatment.

   、医院污水消毒的主要工艺参数如表 5-2 所示。 2. The main process parameters of hospital sewage disinfection are shown in Table 5-2 .

5-2 Table 5-2    Main process parameters of ozone disinfection of hospital sewage  

item     Head

Primary treatment effluent

Secondary treatment effluent

/mg · L -1 Ozone dosage / mg · L -1

/min Contact time / min

/% Coliform removal rate /%

50 30 50

30

99.99

20 10 20

15 5 to 15

99.99

       、在选择臭氧发生器时,要根据污水水质及处理工艺确定臭氧投加量,再根据臭氧投加量和单位时间处理水量确定臭氧使用量,按每小时使用臭氧量选择臭氧发生器台数及型号。 3. When selecting an ozone generator, determine the amount of ozone to be added according to the quality of sewage water and the treatment process, and then determine the amount of ozone to be used according to the amount of ozone to be added and the amount of water treated per unit time. model.

   、臭氧与污水接触方式一般采用鼓泡法,气泡分散越小,臭氧利用率越高,消毒效果越好。 4. The contact method of ozone and sewage generally adopts the bubble method. The smaller the bubble dispersion, the higher the ozone utilization rate and the better the disinfection effect. Therefore, it is necessary to choose an ozone inlet device with good air-water mixing effect.

   、臭氧系统设备管道应做防腐处理与密封。 5. The pipes of the ozone system equipment should be anti-corrosive treated and sealed.

   、臭氧设备间应设置通风设备,通风机应安装在靠近地面处。 6. Ventilation equipment should be set up in the ozone equipment room, and the ventilator should be installed near the ground.

   、在工艺末端必须设置尾气处理或尾气回收装置,反应后排出的臭氧尾气必须经过分解破坏或回收利用,达到排放标准。 7. The tail gas treatment or tail gas recovery device must be set at the end of the process. The ozone tail gas discharged after the reaction must be decomposed, destroyed or recycled to meet the emission standards.

   5.7.2 Scope of application

   、采用二级处理的医院污水最好采用臭氧消毒,这样可以减少臭氧的投加量,降低设备投资费用和运行费用。 1. It is best to use ozone disinfection for hospital sewage with secondary treatment. This can reduce the amount of ozone added, reduce equipment investment costs and operating costs.

   、投资及运行费用较高,适用于管理水平较高的传染病医院及综合医院污水处理。 2. The investment and operating costs are relatively high, and it is suitable for sewage treatment in infectious disease hospitals and general hospitals with high management level.

   5.7.3 Operation management

   、臭氧对人有毒,国家规定大气中允许浓度为 0.2mg/m3 1. Ozone is toxic to humans, and the state stipulates that the allowable concentration in the atmosphere is 0.2mg / m3 .

   、臭氧为强氧化剂,浓度越高对接触物品损害越重,使用时应注意。 2. Ozone is a strong oxidant. The higher the concentration, the heavier the damage to the contact items. Please pay attention when using it.

   、在使用时应控制影响臭氧杀菌作用的因素,包括温度、相对湿度、有机物、 pH 、水的浑浊度、水的色度等。 3. The factors affecting ozone sterilization should be controlled during use, including temperature, relative humidity, organic matter, pH , water turbidity, water color, etc.

   、在产臭氧过程中,避免放电电极潮湿而造成断路。 4. During the ozone production process, avoid the open circuit caused by the wet electrode.

   、臭氧的产量受电压、进气量和进气压力的影响。 5. Ozone production is affected by voltage, intake air volume, and intake air pressure.

   、臭氧的投加量和剩余臭氧量在消毒中起着重要作用,使用时应注意控制。 6. The dosage of ozone and the amount of residual ozone play an important role in disinfection. Pay attention to control during use.

       紫外线消毒 5.8 UV disinfection

C 波紫外线,其波长范围是 200 275nm ,杀菌作用最强的波段是 250 270nm The ultraviolet rays used for disinfection are C- wave ultraviolet rays, whose wavelength range is 200 to 275nm , and the strongest sterilization band is 250 to 270nm . C 波段紫外光发生装置产生的强紫外光照射流水,使水中的各种细菌、病毒、寄生虫、水藻以及其他病原体受到一定剂量的紫外 C 光辐射后,其细胞组织中的 DNA 结构受到破坏而失去活性,从而杀灭水中的细菌、病毒以及其它致病体,达到消毒杀菌和净化的目的。 Ultraviolet sterilization technology uses special designed high-power, high-intensity and long-life C -band ultraviolet light generator to generate strong ultraviolet light to irradiate flowing water, so that various bacteria, viruses, parasites, algae and other pathogens in the water are exposed to a certain dose After the ultraviolet C light is radiated, the DNA structure in the cell tissue is destroyed and loses its activity, thereby killing bacteria, viruses and other pathogens in the water, and achieving the purpose of disinfection and sterilization and purification. Ultraviolet sterilization is fast, the effect is good, and it does not produce any secondary pollution. It belongs to the new generation of international disinfection technology. However, the concentration of suspended solids in the water is required to be low to ensure good light transmission.

   5.8.1 engineering design

   、采用紫外线消毒时要求被处理的水中悬浮物浓度 <10mg/L ,在此条件下推荐的照射强度为 25-30μW/cm2 ,照射时间 >10s 1. The concentration of suspended solids in the water to be treated is required to be <10mg / L when using UV disinfection . Under these conditions, the recommended irradiation intensity is 25-30μW / cm2 and the irradiation time is > 10s .

   、紫外线消毒系统可采用明渠型或封闭型。 2. Ultraviolet disinfection system can adopt open channel or closed type. Relatively speaking, open channel type is easier to monitor and maintain than closed type, and has less resistance to water flow.

   、紫外系统内还应包括清洗设施。 3. The UV system should also include cleaning facilities. Hospital sewage should adopt automatic cleaning devices.

   、紫外系统用于医院污水处理过程中排放的气体消毒时,采用循环式紫外空气消毒装置。 4. When the ultraviolet system is used for disinfecting the gas discharged during the sewage treatment process in the hospital, a circulating ultraviolet air disinfection device is used.

   、紫外灯管应专业回收。 5. UV lamps should be professionally recycled.

   5.8.2 Scope of application

   、出水悬浮物浓度小于 10mg/L 的污水处理系统可采用紫外消毒方式; 1. Sewage treatment system with effluent suspended matter concentration less than 10mg / L can adopt UV disinfection method;

   、在有特殊要求的情况下,如排入某些有特殊要求的水域时,可采用紫外消毒方式; 2. In the case of special requirements, such as the discharge into certain water areas with special requirements, UV disinfection can be used;

   5.8.3 Operation management

   、不得使紫外线光源照射到人,并注意眼睛的防护,以免引起损伤。 1. Do n't expose the ultraviolet light source to people, and pay attention to eye protection, so as not to cause damage.

   、在使用过程中,要特别注意对紫外线灯管辐照度值进行测定。 2. In the process of use, special attention should be paid to the determination of the irradiance value of the ultraviolet lamp.

   、使用的紫外线灯,新灯的辐照强度不得低于 90uw/cm2 ,使用中紫外线的辐照强度不得低于 70 uw/cm2 ,凡低于 70 uw/cm2 者应及时更换灯管。 3. For the ultraviolet lamps used, the irradiation intensity of the new lamps shall not be lower than 90uw / cm2 , and the intensity of the ultraviolet rays during use shall not be lower than 70 uw / cm2 . Those who are lower than 70 uw / cm2 shall replace the lamp in time.

   、紫外线消毒的最适宜温度范围是 20 40 ,温度过高过低均会影响消毒效果。 4. The most suitable temperature range for UV disinfection is 20 40 . If the temperature is too high or too low, it will affect the disinfection effect.

   、在使用过程中,应保持紫外线灯表面的清洁,一般每两周用酒精棉球擦拭一次,发现灯管表面有灰尘、油污时,应随时擦拭。 5. During the use, the surface of the ultraviolet lamp should be kept clean. Generally, it should be wiped with alcohol cotton ball every two weeks. When the surface of the lamp tube is found to be dusty or oily, it should be wiped at any time.

   6 Chapter 6 Hospital sewage treatment system sludge and waste gas treatment technology

医院污泥处理 6.1 Hospital sludge treatment

   6.1.1 Classification and volume of sludge

   、污泥根据工艺分为化粪池污泥、初沉污泥、剩余污泥、化学 ( 混凝 ) 沉淀污泥、消化污泥等。 1. Sludge is divided into septic tank sludge, primary sedimentation sludge, residual sludge, chemical ( coagulation ) sedimentation sludge, digestion sludge, etc. according to the process .

   、医院污水处理过程产生的泥量与原水的悬浮固体及处理工艺有关。 2. The amount of mud produced in the hospital sewage treatment process is related to the suspended solids in the raw water and the treatment process. 6-1 所示。 Table 6-1 shows the amount of sludge produced by hospital sewage treatment structures .

6-1 Table 6-1   Average sludge volume

Source of sludge

Total solids

.d) (g / person.d)

Moisture content

% ( % )

Sludge volume

.d) (L / person.d)

.a) (L / person.a)

Primary sink

54

95 92 95

1.08 0.68 1.08

395 249 395

Second sink pond

31

98.5 97 98.5

2.07 1.04 2.07

755 380 755

Coagulation sedimentation

66 ~ 75

97 93 97

2.20 1.07 2.20

840 390 840

  、化粪池污泥来自医院医务人员及患者的粪便,污泥量取决于化粪池的清掏周期和每人每日的粪便量。 3. The septic tank sludge comes from the hospital staff and patients' feces. The amount of sludge depends on the cleaning cycle of the septic tank and the daily fecal volume per person.The amount of stool per person per day is about 150g .

   、处理放射性污水的化粪池或处理池每半年清掏一次,清掏前应监测其放射性达标方可处置。 4 , septic tanks or treatment tanks for radioactive sewage are cleaned up every six months, and their radioactivity should be monitored before disposal for disposal.

   6.1.2 Hospital sludge treatment process

The sludge treatment process is mainly based on sludge disinfection and sludge dewatering. The remaining sludge produced by the water treatment process is placed in a sludge disinfection tank, and lime or bleach is added as a disinfectant for disinfection. If the amount of sludge is small, the sterilized sludge can be discharged into a septic tank for storage; if the amount of sludge is large, the sterilized sludge must be dehydrated and packaged for transportation for incineration as a hazardous waste.

   6.1.3 Sludge disinfection

   、污泥首先在消毒池或储泥池中进行消毒,消毒池或储泥池池容不小于处理系统 24h 产泥量,但不宜小于 1m3 1. The sludge is first sterilized in a sterilization tank or storage tank. The capacity of the sterilization tank or storage tank is not less than the 24h sludge output of the treatment system , but it should not be less than 1m3 . Stirring measures need to be taken in the sludge tank to facilitate the sludge dosing and disinfection.

   、每天湿污泥产量小于 2m3 的医院污水处理系统,污泥可在消毒后排入化粪池,此时化粪池的容积应考虑到此部分的污泥量。 2. The hospital sewage treatment system with a daily wet sludge output of less than 2m3 , the sludge can be discharged into the septic tank after disinfection. At this time, the volume of the septic tank should take into account the amount of sludge in this part. 2m3 的医院污水处理系统,污泥可在消毒后进行脱水。 Hospital sewage treatment system with a daily wet sludge output of more than 2m3 , the sludge can be dehydrated after disinfection.

   、污泥消毒的最主要目的是杀灭致病菌,避免二次污染,可以通过化学消毒的方式实现。 3. The main purpose of sludge disinfection is to kill pathogenic bacteria and avoid secondary pollution, which can be achieved by chemical disinfection. Chemical disinfection often uses lime and bleach.

1 )石灰投量每升污泥约为 15g ,使污泥 pH 11-12 ,充分搅拌均匀后保持接触 30-60min ,并存放 7 天以上。 ( 1 ) The amount of lime per liter of sludge is about 15g , so that the pH of the sludge reaches 11-12 . After being stirred well, keep it in contact for 30-60min , and store it for more than 7 days.

2 )漂白粉投加量约为泥量的 10-15% ( 2 ) The dosage of bleaching powder is about 10-15% of the amount of mud .

3 )有条件的地区可采用紫外线辐照消毒。 ( 3 ) Areas with conditions can be disinfected by ultraviolet radiation.

   6.1.4 Sludge dewatering

   、污泥脱水的目的是降低污泥含水率,脱水过程必须考虑密封和气体处理。 1. The purpose of sludge dehydration is to reduce the moisture content of sludge. The dehydration process must consider sealing and gas treatment.

   、污泥脱水宜采用离心脱水机。 2. Centrifugal dehydrator should be used for sludge dewatering. The sludge quenching and tempering before centrifugation is generally chemically quenched with organic or inorganic agents.

   、脱水后的污泥应密闭封装、运输。 3. The dewatered sludge should be sealed, sealed and transported.

   6.1.5 Final disposal of sludge

( 焚烧 ) 处置。 The sludge is classified according to the hazardous wastes of the State Environmental Protection Administration and belongs to the category of hazardous wastes. It must be concentrated ( incinerated ) for disposal in accordance with medical waste treatment requirements .

      废气处理工艺路线选择 6.2 Selection of exhaust gas treatment process route

   6.2.1 Process flow

   、为防病毒从医院水处理构筑物表面挥发到大气中而造成病毒的二次传播污染,将水处理池加盖板密闭起来,盖板上预留进、出气口,把处于自由扩散状态的气体组织起来。 1. In order to prevent the virus from volatilizing from the surface of the hospital's water treatment structure to the atmosphere and causing the secondary transmission of the virus, the water treatment tank is covered with a cover plate. The gas is organized.

   、组织气体进入管道定向流动到能阻截、过滤吸附、辐照或杀死病毒、细菌的设备中,经过有效处理后再排入大气。 2. Tissue gas enters the pipeline and flows into the equipment that can block, filter, adsorb, irradiate or kill viruses and bacteria. After effective treatment, it is discharged into the atmosphere.

   、废气处理可采用臭氧、过氧乙酸、含氯消毒剂、紫外线、高压电场、过滤吸附和光催化消毒处理对空气传播类病毒进行有效的灭活。 3. Waste gas treatment can use ozone, peroxyacetic acid, chlorine-containing disinfectant, ultraviolet light, high-voltage electric field, filter adsorption and photocatalytic disinfection treatment to effectively inactivate airborne viruses.

   6.2.2 Design Points

   、按局部通风设计原则,针对有害气体散发状况,优先考虑密闭罩。 1. According to the principle of local ventilation design, in consideration of the harmful gas emission situation, a closed enclosure is given priority.

   、对于格栅口和污泥的清除处,由于操作需要,可以采取敞口罩。 2. For the removal of grille openings and sludge, open masks can be used due to operational needs.

   、通风机选用离心式,排气高度 15m 3. The fan is centrifugal and the exhaust height is 15m .

   、通风机流量和压头需要根据不同处理方法的要求选取,对于使用氧化型消毒剂的情况,通风机和管材应考虑防腐。 4. The flow rate and head of the ventilator need to be selected according to the requirements of different treatment methods. For the case of using oxidizing disinfectants, the ventilator and pipes should be considered for anticorrosion.

   7 Chapter 7 Radioactive wastewater treatment technology

放射性废水来源 7.1 Radioactive Wastewater Source

The radioactive waste water mainly comes from the excreta produced by patients after taking or injecting radioactive isotopes during the diagnosis and treatment, the radioactive waste water discharged from the isotope containers, cups and laboratory washing water, and the labeled compounds.

放射性废水的水质水量和排放标准 7.2 Water quality and discharge standards of radioactive wastewater

   7.2.1 3.7×102Bq/L 3.7×105Bq/L The concentration range of radioactive wastewater is 3.7 × 102Bq / L to 3.7 × 105Bq / L.

   7.2.2 100 200L/ .d The amount of wastewater is 100 ~ 200L / bed.d.

   7.2.3 α<1 Bq/L ,总 β<10 Bq/L Hospital radioactive wastewater discharge implements the newly formulated "Discharge Standards for Medical Institution Pollutants", which stipulates that the total α <1 Bq / L and the total β <10 Bq / L shall be monitored at the discharge outlet of the radioactive wastewater treatment facility .

       放射性废水系统及衰变池设计 7.3 Design of Radioactive Wastewater System and Decay Pool

   7.3.1 Radioactive wastewater should be set up with a separate collection system. Radioactive domestic sewage and test flushing wastewater should be collected separately. The pipelines used to collect radioactive wastewater should be corrosion-resistant special pipes, usually stainless steel pipes or plastic pipes.

   7.3.2 The radioactive test flushing wastewater can be directly discharged into the decay tank, and the fecal domestic sewage should be purified into the septic tank or sewage treatment tank before being discharged into the decay tank.

   7.3.3 The decay tank is designed or selected according to the bed and water volume.

   7.3.4 The decay cell is designed according to the type and intensity of the isotope used. The decay cell can be intermittent or continuous.

   7.3.5 The intermittent decay pool adopts multi-format intermittent discharge; the continuous decay pool has a diversion wall in the pool to push the discharge. 10 个半衰期计算,或按同位素的衰变公式计算。 The volume of the decay pool is calculated based on the 10 half-lives of the longest half-life isotope , or the decay formula of the isotope.

   7.3.6 The decay tank should be impervious to corrosion.

       监测和管理 7.4 Monitoring and management

   7.4.1 Intermittent decay ponds are monitored before discharge; continuous decay ponds are monitored monthly.

   7.4.2 Septic tanks or treatment tanks that collect and process radioactive sewage are cleared every six months, and their radioactivity should be monitored before disposal for disposal.

   8 Chapter 8 Monitoring equipment and instruments

医院污水设备 8.1 Hospital sewage equipment

The source and composition of hospital sewage are complex, containing pathogenic microorganisms, toxic and harmful physical and chemical pollutants, and radioactive pollution. It has the characteristics of space pollution, acute infection and latent infection. Without effective treatment, it will become an important way to spread the disease. And severely pollute the environment;

In view of the infectivity of hospital sewage, in order to reduce the contact of operators to the site and reduce the chance of infection, a higher level of automation equipment should be used in the sewage treatment project of infectious disease hospitals.

       在线测量仪表的配置原则 8.2 Configuration Principles of Online Measuring Instruments

The configuration of online instruments should be comprehensively considered according to capital constraints and process needs.

   8.2.1 Hospital sewage treatment stations should be equipped with an on-line residual chlorine analyzer and flow meter at the exit.

   8.2.2 When using liquid chlorine disinfection, a liquid level controller should be set to indicate, alarm and control the disinfected sewage liquid level and chlorine solution liquid level; at the same time, a chlorine gas leakage alarm device should be provided.

   8.2.3 The flowmeter is preferably an ultrasonic flowmeter or an electromagnetic flowmeter.

   8.2.4 400 床以下的医院污水处理工程可只设置液位控制仪表,液位控制仪表可采用浮球式、超声波式或电容式液位信号开关; 400 床以上的医院污水处理工程除液位控制仪表外,宜加设液位测量仪,液位测量仪可选用超声波式或电容式液位测量仪。 According to the scale of the hospital, only the liquid level control instruments can be installed in hospital sewage treatment projects below 400 beds, and the liquid level control instruments can adopt floating ball, ultrasonic or capacitive level signal switches. In addition to the position control instrument, a liquid level measuring instrument should be additionally installed. The liquid level measuring instrument can be an ultrasonic type or a capacitance type liquid level measuring instrument.

   8.2.5 PH 测定仪等仪表。 Hospitals that have adopted the two-stage treatment process can also set up instruments such as dissolved oxygen analyzers and pH analyzers.

      自动控制内容及方式 8.3 Contents and methods of automatic control

The level of automatic control should be determined according to the process flow, project scale and management level. The main contents of automatic control are as follows:

   8.3.1 Automatic water level control and disinfectant dosing automatic control are important contents of automatic control. The dosage of disinfectant should be automatically controlled and adjusted according to the measurement result of the online residual chlorine analyzer.

   8.3.2 / 停。 Electric grille decontamination machine and aerobic aeration automatic control; can be automatically started / stopped in a timed manner according to process operation requirements .

Different monitoring methods should be determined according to the size of the project, the amount of funds and the infectious differences. The following different monitoring methods are available for reference in engineering design.

   、就地控制方式( A ):在电控箱及现场按钮箱上控制,不设在线测量仪表,只设水位信号开关,利用水位信号开关自动开 / 停水泵。 1. Local control method ( A ): control on electric control box and on-site button box, no on-line measuring instrument, only water level signal switch, and water level signal switch to automatically start / stop the pump

   、常规集中监控方式 (B) :分为两种方式。 2. Conventional centralized monitoring method (B) : There are two methods.

1 )在总电控柜上集中监控,不另设独立的集中监控柜 (B-1) ( 1 ) Centralized monitoring on the main electrical control cabinet, no separate centralized monitoring cabinet (B-1) is provided .

2 )设独立的集中监控柜 ( )(B-2) ( 2 ) Set up independent centralized monitoring cabinet ( set ) (B-2) .

   PLC 监控方式 (C) ,分为两种方式。 3 , PLC monitoring mode (C) , divided into two ways.

1 )在总电控柜内设 PLC 控制器 (C-1) PLC 控制器用于工艺设备的自动控制,各种设置在总电控柜上集中控制。 ( 1 ) A PLC controller (C-1) is installed in the main electric control cabinet. The PLC controller is used for automatic control of process equipment. Various settings are centrally controlled on the main electric control cabinet.

2 )设独立的集中监控柜 (C-2) ( 2 ) Set up independent centralized monitoring cabinet (C-2) .

   、计算机监控方式 (D) 4. Computer monitoring mode (D) . PLC 控制器及微型计算机集中监控。 Adopt small PLC controller and microcomputer for centralized monitoring. This method is only applicable to individual large-scale projects with complicated processes and maintenance management conditions.

  8-1 Table 8-1      Choice of monitoring method

Project scale

Process flow

Monitoring method

Prepare Note

床位及以下 200 beds and below

Physical and chemical treatment process  

A Monitoring method A

 

Biochemical treatment process  

A B 1 Monitoring method A or B 1

 

Infectious disease sewage  

B-1 Monitoring method B-1     

 

400 床位 250 to 400 beds

Physical and chemical treatment process  

B 2 C 1 Monitoring method B - 2 or C - 1

 

Biochemical treatment process  

C 1 C 2 Monitoring method C - 1 or C - 2

 

800 床位 500 to 800 beds

Physical and chemical treatment process  

C 2 Monitoring method C 2

 

Biochemical treatment process  

C 2 Monitoring method C 2

 

Hospital for infectious diseases with biochemical treatment technology  

C 2 D Monitoring method C - 2 or D

 

       控制室设计要求 8.4 Control room design requirements

   8.4.1 ( 配电室 ) 共用。 Large-scale and complicated hospital sewage treatment projects should be provided with independent centralized control rooms or shared with the main electrical control cabinet room ( power distribution room ) .

   8.4.2 12 20m2 The area of independent control room is generally controlled between 12 and 20m2 . 15 20m2 ,设防静电地板,室内做适当装修 If it is a computer-controlled control room, the area should be 15-20m2 , with anti-static floor, and the room should be properly decorated.

   8.4.3 The control room of an infectious disease hospital should be separated from the processing equipment site to reduce the operator's contact with the site.

   9 Chapter 9 Hospital sewage treatment station construction requirements

处理站的选址、安全间距及防护隔离要求 9.1 Site selection, safety clearance and protective isolation requirements for processing stations

The selection of the location of the processing station should be determined according to the overall plan of the hospital, the location of the exit, environmental requirements, wind direction, engineering geology, maintenance management and transportation and other factors.

   9.1.1 The location of the hospital's sewage treatment structure should be located in the downwind direction of the local summer wind prevailing in the hospital building.

   9.1.2 Hospital sewage treatment facilities shall be kept at a certain distance from buildings such as wards and residential areas, and green protective belts or isolation belts shall be provided.

   9.1.3 2.5m Surrounding walls or closed facilities should be provided around the sewage treatment station, and its height should not be less than 2.5m .

   9.1.4 The sewage treatment station should have the possibility of expansion; it is convenient for construction, operation and maintenance.

   9.1.5 Sewage treatment stations should have convenient traffic, transportation, and hydropower conditions; facilitate sewage discharge and sludge storage and transportation.

   9.1.6 Sewage treatment stations of infectious disease hospitals and general hospitals containing infectious disease rooms, their production management buildings and living facilities should be arranged centrally, the location and orientation should be reasonable, and they should be strictly isolated from the treatment structure and buildings.

        处理构、建筑物的设计要求 9.2 Design requirements for structures and buildings

   9.2.1 50 %的负荷计算。 The treatment structure, building and main equipment shall be divided into two groups, and each group shall be calculated at 50 % load.

   9.2.2 Treatment structures and buildings should take anti-corrosion and anti-leakage measures; ensure the treatment effect, safe and durable, easy to operate, and conducive to the labor protection of operators.

   9.2.3 Wastewater treatment structures shall be provided with drainage facilities, and the discharged water shall be returned for treatment.

   9.2.4 In cold areas, structures should be protected against freezing. 5 设计;加药间、检验室和值班室等的室内温度可按 15 设计。 When heating, the indoor temperature of the processing structure can be designed as 5 ; the indoor temperature of the dosing room, inspection room and duty room can be designed as 15 .

   9.2.5 Appropriate safety measures such as railings, anti-slip ladders and lightning rods shall be provided for elevated structures.

   9.2.6 The drainage of sewage treatment station should generally be discharged by gravity flow, and a drainage pump station can be set up if necessary.

        处理站的附属设施及相关要求 9.3 Ancillary facilities and related requirements of the processing station

   9.3.1 In the design of the sewage treatment station, room should be appropriately reserved according to the overall plan.

   9.3.2 According to the scale and specific conditions of the hospital, the processing station should be equipped with facilities such as duty, laboratory room, control room and contact telephone.

   9.3.3 Sewage treatment stations can be provided with sludge, waste residue, and medical waste storage sites at appropriate locations as required, but the above garbage must be strictly closed.

   9.3.4 There should be necessary measuring, safety and alarm devices in the processing station.

        医院污水处理站费用分析 9.4 Hospital Wastewater Treatment Station Cost Analysis

Calculate infrastructure costs based on the treatment process adopted by the hospital's sewage treatment station, and calculate operating costs based on the energy consumption, pharmaceutical consumption, operator wages and welfare costs, repair and maintenance costs, and other costs of the treatment station.

   9.4.1 Infrastructure costs

According to the different areas of the hospital, building form, discharge destination, scale, and process flow, reference control indicators are used to calculate the infrastructure costs of each process of the hospital's sewage treatment.

9-1 See Table 9-1 for various process infrastructure costs .

  9-1 各种工艺基建费用表 Table 9-1 Infrastructure cost of various processes

 

/m 3 Infrastructure costs (yuan / m 3 )

Strengthen the first-level processing effect:

900 ~ 1500

Secondary biochemical treatment: activated sludge process

  Contact oxidation   

  Aerated biological filter

1200 ~ 2000

1200 ~ 2000

2000 ~ 2500

Small biogas purification tank    

1000 ~ 1500

         Note: The main processes in the calculation of infrastructure costs:

The primary treatment to enhance the treatment effect includes adjustment, coagulation sedimentation and disinfection.

Secondary biochemical treatment includes conditioning, biochemical treatment, and disinfection.

Small biogas purification tanks include biogas purification tanks and disinfection.

   9.4.2 Running cost

Calculate the cost of a new hospital, based on the investment in the treatment plant, energy consumption, pharmaceutical consumption, wages and benefits of operating workers, repair and maintenance costs, and other costs, and refer to the data of the existing treatment plant.

9-2 See Table 9-2 for various process operating costs .

9-2 各种工艺运行费用表 Table 9-2 Operating cost of various processes

 

/m 3 Operating cost (yuan / m 3 )

Strengthen the first-level processing effect:    

0.5 ~ 1.0

Secondary biochemical treatment

 

SBR Activated Sludge Process ( SBR )   

1.0 ~ 1.5

Contact oxidation       

1.0 ~ 1.5

Aerated biological filter     

1.2 ~ 1.8

Biofilm method       

1.5 ~ 2.0

Biogas purification tank

0.2 ~ 0.5

    绿化 9.5 Greening

   9.5.1 Hospital sewage treatment plants must be greened. Several flowers can be planted to beautify the environment.

   9.5.2 As far as possible, between the hospital sewage treatment plant and the ward or the residential area, a green belt that is tall, absorbs odors, and has the function of purifying air should be planted to reduce the interference of odors and fan noise on patients or residents.

   9.5.3 The hygiene work of the hospital sewage treatment plant is very important. Mosquito and flies are more prone to breeding is a characteristic of sewage treatment plants, and effective measures must be taken to prevent them. Be clean and tidy, civilized and sanitary.

   10 Chapter 10 Hospital sewage treatment engineering design, construction and acceptance

工程设计 10.1 Engineering Design

   10.1.1 The design unit of the hospital sewage treatment project shall have the special qualification of national environmental engineering, and the design scheme of the project shall be reviewed by relevant departments;

   10.1.2 Hospital sewage treatment engineering design should be carried out with reference to the relevant provisions of the "Code for Water Supply and Drainage Design" and the "Handbook for Water Supply and Drainage Design"

   10.1.3 Hospital sewage treatment equipment should preferentially choose environmental protection equipment certified by environmental protection products.

      工程建设和验收 10.2 Engineering construction and acceptance

   10.2.1 The civil construction and installation quality of the hospital sewage treatment project shall meet the national engineering acceptance specifications.

   10.2.2 Hospital sewage treatment facilities should be constructed according to design requirements.

   10.2.3 Whether the hospital sewage treatment instrumentation, equipment, and water supply and drainage pipelines are constructed according to the drawings.

   10.2.4 Whether the disinfection equipment is running normally; after passing the load test, its pollution prevention and control ability can meet the needs of the hospital.

   10.2.5 Whether spare parts and safety facilities are available.

   10.2.6 The operators of hospital sewage treatment facilities should be trained and perfect the post operation regulations and corresponding rules and regulations.

   10.2.7 Hospital sewage treatment facilities should be completed in synchronization with the overall hospital facilities. Newly constructed hospital sewage treatment facilities should be commissioned in advance to ensure that they are put into trial operation at the same time as the main hospital facilities. Hospital sewage treatment facilities need to undergo a certain period of trial operation, and the treatment effect should be good. Chemical treatment requires a one-month trial run, and secondary biochemical treatment requires a three-month trial run. Before it is officially put into operation, an application for completion inspection must be submitted to the environmental protection administrative department.

   10.2.8 After passing the inspection, the hospital's sewage treatment facilities were put into operation and discharged.

   11 Chapter 11 Operation management

运行管理 11.1 Operation Management

   11.1.1 The routine maintenance of hospital sewage treatment equipment should be incorporated into the hospital's normal equipment maintenance management work. The structures, equipment, electrical and automatic control instruments shall be regularly inspected and maintained in accordance with process requirements to ensure the stable operation of the processing facilities.

   11.1.2 95% ( 以运行天数计 ) ;达标率应大于 95%( 以运行天数和主要水质指标计 ) ;设备的综合完好率应大于 90% The operation of hospital sewage treatment facilities should meet the following technical indicators: the operating rate should be greater than 95% ( based on the number of operating days ) ; the compliance rate should be greater than 95% ( based on the operating days and main water quality indicators ) ; the comprehensive integrity rate of the equipment should be greater than 90 % .

   11.1.3 When the sewage treatment facilities need to reduce the amount of sewage treatment or stop operation for some reason, they should report to the environmental protection department in advance and can only proceed after approval. When the operation is stopped due to an emergency, the local environmental protection department should be reported immediately.

   11.1.4 The operation and operation of electrical equipment must follow the safety operation regulations of the power supply management department; flammable and explosive workshops or places should be equipped with fire protection equipment according to the requirements of the fire department.

   11.1.5 Improve the ability of sewage treatment facilities to prevent health emergencies, set up emergency supporting facilities or reserve space for emergency reconstruction, and have the conditions for emergency reconstruction.

   11.1.6 Encourage the operation and management of units with operational qualifications.

   11.1.7 Establish and improve the operating ledger system, truthfully fill in operating records, and keep them properly.

        监测分析 11.2 Monitoring analysis

   11.2.1 Monitor, record, keep and report on water quality as required.

The main monitoring indicators of the hospital sewage treatment station are physical and chemical indicators, biological pollution indicators, and biological indicators.

   、医院污水理化指标的监测是判断医院污水处理系统运行状况和处理效果的重要手段,对保证污水处理系统的正常运行和出水达标极为重要。 1. Monitoring of physical and chemical indicators of hospital sewage is an important means to judge the operation status and treatment effect of hospital sewage treatment system, and it is extremely important to ensure the normal operation of sewage treatment system and the compliance of effluent. pH 值、悬浮物、氨氮、溶解氧、生化需氧量、化学需氧量和余氯等。 The physical and chemical monitoring indicators of hospital sewage water quality are: temperature, pH value, suspended solids, ammonia nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, and residual chlorine.

   、医院污水的生物性污染主要包括细菌、病毒和寄生虫污染。 2. Biological pollution of hospital sewage mainly includes bacterial, viral and parasitic pollution. Representative indicator organisms are often used as indicators. Biological indicators mainly refer to the coliform group, and there are indicator organisms of other organisms (such as E. coli, faecal streptococcus, etc.).

   11.2.2 Water quality sampling should be taken at the discharge outlet at the end of the sewage treatment process or the discharge outlet of the treatment facility.

   11.2.3 Monitoring frequency:

Daily monitoring frequency:

2 次,粪大肠菌每月不得少于 1 次。 Biological indicators: total residual chlorine is at least 2 times a day, and fecal coliform should not be less than 1 time a month .

2h 一次,取 24h 混合样,以日均值计,总 a 、总 b 在衰变池排放前取样监测。 Physical and chemical indicators: The sampling frequency is at least once every 2h , and a 24h mixed sample is taken. Based on the daily average, the total a and total b are sampled and monitored before the decay pool is discharged. 2 次。 The monitoring shall not be less than twice a month .

Law enforcement monitoring frequency:

4 次。 Biological indicators: total residual chlorine and fecal coliform must not be less than 4 times per year .

2 次。 Physical and chemical indicators: monitoring should not be less than twice a year. 2h 一次,取 24h 混合样,以日均值计,总 a 、总 b 在衰变池排放前取样监测。 The sampling frequency is at least once every 2h , and a 24h mixed sample is taken. Based on the daily average, the total a and total b are sampled and monitored before the decay tank is discharged.

   11.2.4 For the monitoring methods of various indicators, refer to the standard methods or equivalent methods recognized by the State Environmental Protection Administration.

       劳动保护 11.3 Labor protection

The operation of the treatment equipment, the maintenance of the equipment, and the treatment and disposal of sludge and exhaust gas in the hospital sewage treatment process are easy to cause harm to the environment and human body. Therefore, the impact of the hospital sewage treatment station on the environment and the occupational health of the staff And labor protection.

   11.3.1 All operating and maintenance personnel must undergo technical training and production practices, and be certified to work.

   11.3.2 The sewage treatment station of an infectious disease hospital shall take effective occupational health protection measures, equip workers and managers with necessary protective supplies, conduct regular health checks, and prevent health damage.

   11.3.3 Infectious disease hospital wastewater treatment stations should develop and implement effective occupational health procedures, including necessary immunizations, measures to prevent overexposure to harmful environments, and medical supervision.

   11.3.4 Infectious disease hospitals (including general hospitals with infectious ward) must be equipped with forced ventilation equipment for the indoor sewage treatment system, and staff must be equipped with a full set of work clothes, gloves, masks and goggles and gas masks.

   11.3.5 The staff should pay attention to personal hygiene, should be equipped with facilities for cleaning the staff (with hand soap, warm water), and the staff should be trained in personal hygiene.

   11.3.6 The closed system of the hospital sewage treatment station should be equipped with monitoring and alarm devices, and emergency measures should be taken in the event of an accident.

   11.3.7 The workplace should have a first aid kit.